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  • Anthropogenic climate change  (1)
  • Ocean temperature change  (1)
  • Pacific Ocean  (1)
  • Salinity change  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Annual Review of Marine Science 8 (2016): 185-215, doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-052915-100829.
    Description: The ocean, a central component of Earth’s climate system, is changing. Given the global scope of these changes, highly accurate measurements of physical and biogeochemical properties need to be conducted over the full water column, spanning the ocean basins from coast to coast, and repeated every decade at a minimum, with a ship-based observing system. Since the late 1970s, when the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) conducted the first global survey of this kind, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and now the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) have collected these “reference standard” data that allow quantification of ocean heat and carbon uptake, and variations in salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and acidity on basin scales. The evolving GO-SHIP measurement suite also provides new global information about dissolved organic carbon, a large bioactive reservoir of carbon.
    Description: Climate Observations Division of the U.S. NOAA Climate Program Office and NOAA Research; Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) under NOAA Cooperative Agreement NA10OAR4320148; U.S. National Science Foundation [OCE- 0223869; OCE-0752970; OCE-0825163; OCE-1434000; OCE 0752972; OCE-0752980; OCE-1232962; OCE-1155983; OCE-1436748]; U.S. CLIVAR Project Office; Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency; Australian Climate Change Science Program (Australian Department of Environment and CSIRO); U.K. Natural Environment Research Council; European Union’s FP7 grant agreement 264879 (CarboChange); Horizon 2020 grant agreement No 633211; ETH Zurich Switzerland.
    Keywords: Anthropogenic climate change ; Ocean temperature change ; Salinity change ; Ocean carbon cycle ; Ocean oxygen and nutrients ; Ocean chlorofluorocarbons ; Ocean circulation change ; Ocean mixing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Druffel, E. R. M., Griffin, S., Wang, N., Garcia, N. G., McNichol, A. P., Key, R. M., & Walker, B. D. Dissolved organic radiocarbon in the central Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(10), (2019):5396-5403, doi:10.1029/2019GL083149.
    Description: We report marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, and DOC ∆14C and δ13C values in seawater collected from the central Pacific. Surface ∆14C values are low in equatorial and polar regions where upwelling occurs and high in subtropical regions dominated by downwelling. A core feature of these data is that 14C aging of DOC (682 ± 86 14C years) and dissolved inorganic carbon (643 ± 40 14C years) in Antarctic Bottom Water between 54.0°S and 53.5°N are similar. These estimates of aging are minimum values due to mixing with deep waters. We also observe minimum ∆14C values (−550‰ to −570‰) between the depths of 2,000 and 3,500 m in the North Pacific, though the source of the low values cannot be determined at this time.
    Description: We thank Jennifer Walker, Xiaomei Xu, and Dachun Zhang for their help with the stable carbon isotope measurements; John Southon and staff of the Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Laboratory for their assistance and advice; the support of chief scientists Samantha Siedlecki, Molly Baringer, Alison Macdonald, and Sabine Mecking; the guidance of Jim Swift and Dennis Hansell for shared ship time; and Sarah Bercovici for collecting water on the GoA cruise. We appreciate the comments of Christian Lewis and Niels Hauksson on this manuscript. This work was supported by NSF (OCE‐141458941 to E. R. M. D. and OCE‐0824864, OCE‐1558654, and Cooperative Agreement OCE1239667 to R. M. K. and A. P. M.), the Fred Kavli Foundation, the Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Laboratory, and the NSF/NOAA‐funded GO‐SHIP Program. This research was undertaken, in part, thanks to funding from the Canada Research Chairs program (to B. D. W.) and an American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund New Directions grant (55430‐ND2 to E. R. M. D. and B. D. W.). Data from the P16N cruises are available in Table S2 in the Supporting Information and at the Repeat Hydrography Data Center at the CCHDO website ( using the expo codes 3RO20150329, 3RO20150410, and 3RO20150525. There are no real or perceived financial conflicts of interests for any author.
    Description: 2019-11-02
    Keywords: dissolved organic carbon ; radiocarbon ; Pacific Ocean ; dissolved inorganic carbon ; deep ocean circulation ; AABW
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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