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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-05-01
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 45 (2015): 2773–2789, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0031.1.
    Description: Tidal oscillatory salt transport, induced by the correlation between tidal variations in salinity and velocity, is an important term for the subtidal salt balance under the commonly used Eulerian method of salt transport decomposition. In this paper, its mechanisms in a partially stratified estuary are investigated with a numerical model of the Hudson estuary. During neap tides, when the estuary is strongly stratified, the tidal oscillatory salt transport is mainly due to the hydraulic response of the halocline to the longitudinal variation of topography. This mechanism does not involve vertical mixing, so it should not be regarded as oscillatory shear dispersion, but instead it should be regarded as advective transport of salt, which results from the vertical distortion of exchange flow obtained in the Eulerian decomposition by vertical fluctuations of the halocline. During spring tides, the estuary is weakly stratified, and vertical mixing plays a significant role in the tidal variation of salinity. In the spring tide regime, the tidal oscillatory salt transport is mainly due to oscillatory shear dispersion. In addition, the transient lateral circulation near large channel curvature causes the transverse tilt of the halocline. This mechanism has little effect on the cross-sectionally integrated tidal oscillatory salt transport, but it results in an apparent left–right cross-channel asymmetry of tidal oscillatory salt transport. With the isohaline framework, tidal oscillatory salt transport can be regarded as a part of the net estuarine salt transport, and the Lagrangian advective mechanism and dispersive mechanism can be distinguished.
    Description: Tao Wang was supported by the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research (Grant SKLEC-KF201509) and Chinese Scholarship Council. Geyer was supported by by NSF Grant OCE 0926427. Wensheng Jiang was supported by NSFC-Shandong Joint Fund for Marine Science Research Centers (Grant U1406401).
    Description: 2016-05-01
    Keywords: Geographic location/entity ; Estuaries ; Circulation/ Dynamics ; Baroclinic flows ; Dispersion ; Shear structure/flows ; Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena ; Diapycnal mixing ; Models and modeling ; Regional models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution September 2009
    Description: Mechanisms for the tidal component of salt flux in the Hudson River estuary are investigated using a 3D numerical model. Variations with river discharge, fortnightly tidal forcing, and along channel variability are explored. Four river discharge conditions were considered: 1200 m3 s-1, 600 m3 s-1, 300 m3 s-1, 150 m3 s-1. Tide-induced residual salt flux was found to be variable along the channel, with locations of counter-gradient flux during both neap and spring tide. The magnitude of tidal salt flux scales with the river flow and has no clear dependence on the spring-neap tidal forcing. The diffusive fraction, ν, has a value of -0.25 to 0.46 in the lower estuary, increasing to -0.23 to 1 near the head of salt. The phase lag between tidal salinity and velocity is analyzed at three cross-sections with: large positive, negative, and weak tidal salt flux. The composite Froude number, G2, is calculated along the channel and indicates nearly ubiquitous supercritical flow for maximum flood and ebb during both neap and spring tides. Subcritical flow occurs during slack water and at geographically locked locations during neap floods. Application of two-layer, frictional hydraulic theory reveals how variations in channel width and depth generate tidal asymmetries in cross-sectional salinity, the key ingredient of tidal salt flux.
    Keywords: Salinity ; Tides
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Thesis
    Format: application/pdf
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