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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Transcriptional regulation ; Phospholipid biosynthesis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; INO2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Expression of structural genes of phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast is mediated by the inositol/choline-responsive element (ICRE). ICRE-dependent gene activation, requiring the regulatory genes INO2 and INO4, is repressed in the presence of the phospholipid precursors inositol and choline. INO2 and, to a less extent, INO4 are positively autoregulated by functional ICRE sequences in the respective upstream regions. However, an INO2 allele devoid of its ICRE functionally complemented an ino2 mutation and completely restored inositol/choline regulation of Ino2p-dependent reporter genes. Low-level expression of INO2 and INO4 genes, each under control of the heterologous MET25 promoter, did not alter the regulatory pattern of target genes. Thus, upstream regions of INO2 and INO4 are not crucial for transcriptional control of ICRE-dependent genes by inositol and choline. Interestingly, over-expression of INO2, but not of INO4, counteracted repression by phospholipid precursors. Possibly, a functional antagonism between INO2 and a negative regulator is the key event responsible for repression or de-repression.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase ; Glucose repression ; Gene activation ; Gluconeogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis and the FBP1 gene is not transcribed during growth with glucose. Genetic analysis indicated a positive regulation of FBP1 expression after exhaustion of glucose. By linker-deletion analysis, two upstream activation sites (UAS1 and UAS2) were localized and the respective UAS-binding factors (DAP I and DAP II for derepression activating protein) were identified by gel retardation. UAS1 and UAS2 span about 30 bp each, and are separated by approximately 30 bp. Both UAS sites act synergistically. Although UAS1 showed some similarities to the DNA-binding consensus for the general yeast activator Rap1, competition experiments and DEAE-chromatography proved that DAP I and Rap1 correspond to different proteins. Gel retardation by DAP I depended on carbon sources and did not occur in cells growing logarithmically with glucose, whereas a strong retardation signal was obtained with ethanol-grown cells. The present results suggest that DAP I and DAP II are the final regulatory elements for glucose derepression.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Isocitrate lyase ; Gene regulation ; Ethanol induction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The ICL1 gene encoding the isocitrate lyase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned and sequenced. A reading frame of 557 amino acids showing significant similarity to isocitrate lyases from seven other species could be identified. Construction of icl1 null mutants led to growth defects on C2 carbon sources while utilization of sugars or C3 substrates remained unaffected. Using an ICL1-lacZ fusion integrated at the ICL1 locus, a more than 200-fold induction of β-galactosidase activity was observed after growth on ethanol when compared with glucose-repressed conditions. A preliminary analysis of the ICL1 upstream region identified a 364-bp fragment necessary and sufficient for this regulatory phenotype. Sequence motifs also present in the upstream regions of co-regulated genes were found within this region.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: GC clusters ; Mobile elements ; Target sites ; mtDNA ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary GC clusters constitute the major repetitive elements in the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many of these clusters are optional and thus contribute much to the polymorphism of yeast mtDNAs. We have made a systematic search for polymorphic sites by comparing mtDNA sequences of various yeast strains. Most of the 26 di- or polymorphic sites found differ by the presence or absence of a GC cluster of the majority class, here referred to as the M class, which terminate with an AGGAG motif. Comparison of sequences with and without the GC clusters reveal that elements of the subclasses M1 and M2 are inserted 3′ to a TAG, flanked by A+T rich sequences. M3 elements, in contrast, only occur in tandem arrays of two to four GC clusters; they are consistently inserted 3′ to the AGGAG terminal sequence of a preexisting cluster. The TAG or the terminal AGGAG, therefore, are regarded as being part of the target sites for M1 and M2 or M3 elements, respectively. The dinucleotide AG is in common to both target sites; it also occurs at the 3′ terminus (AGGAG). This suggests its duplication during GC cluster insertion. This notion is supported by the observation that GC clusters of the minor classes G and V similarily repeat at their 3′ terminus a GT or an AA dinucleotide, respectively, from their putative target sites.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Glucose repression ; Glucose derepression ; Regulatory genes ; Expression analysis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Yeast strains carrying one of the two regulatory mutations cat1 and cat3 are defectve in derepression of several glucose-repressible enzymes that are necessary for utilizing non-fermentable carbon sources. Hence, these strains fail to grow on ethanol, glycerol or acetate. The synthesis of isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, malate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is strongly affected in cat1 and cat3 strains. Genes CAT1 and CAT3 have been isolated by complementation of the cognate, mutations after transformation with an episomal plasmid gene library. The restriction map of CAT1 proved its allelism to the earlier isolated SNF1 gene. Both genes appear to exist as single-copy genes per haploid genome as indicated by Southern hybridization. Northern analysis has shown that the 1.35 kb CAT3 mRNA is constitutively expressed, independent of the carbon source in the medium. Derepression studies with CAT3 transformants using a multi-copy plasmid showed over-expression of glyoxylate cycle enzymes. This result would be consistent with a direct effector function for the CAT3 gene product.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; STRE ; stress response ; genomics ; bioinformatics ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Stress response elements (STREs, core consensus AG4 or C4T) have been demonstrated previously to occur in the upstream region of a number of genes responsive to induction by a variety of stress signals. This stress response is mediated by the homologous transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p, which bind specifically to STREs. Double mutants (msn2 msn4) deficient in these transcription factors have been shown to be hypersensitive to severe stress conditions. To obtain a more representative overview of the set of yeast genes controlled via this regulon, a computer search of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was carried out for genes, which, similar to most known STRE-controlled genes, exhibit at least two STREs in their upstream region. In addition to the great majority of genes previously known to be controlled via STREs, 69 open reading-frames were detected. Expression patterns of a set of these were examined by grid filter hybridization, and 14 genes were examined by Northern analysis. Comparison of the expression patterns of these genes demonstrates that they are all STRE-controlled although their detailed expression patterns differ considerably. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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