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  • 1
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; STRE ; stress response ; genomics ; bioinformatics ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Stress response elements (STREs, core consensus AG4 or C4T) have been demonstrated previously to occur in the upstream region of a number of genes responsive to induction by a variety of stress signals. This stress response is mediated by the homologous transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p, which bind specifically to STREs. Double mutants (msn2 msn4) deficient in these transcription factors have been shown to be hypersensitive to severe stress conditions. To obtain a more representative overview of the set of yeast genes controlled via this regulon, a computer search of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was carried out for genes, which, similar to most known STRE-controlled genes, exhibit at least two STREs in their upstream region. In addition to the great majority of genes previously known to be controlled via STREs, 69 open reading-frames were detected. Expression patterns of a set of these were examined by grid filter hybridization, and 14 genes were examined by Northern analysis. Comparison of the expression patterns of these genes demonstrates that they are all STRE-controlled although their detailed expression patterns differ considerably. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: GC clusters ; Mobile elements ; Target sites ; mtDNA ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary GC clusters constitute the major repetitive elements in the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many of these clusters are optional and thus contribute much to the polymorphism of yeast mtDNAs. We have made a systematic search for polymorphic sites by comparing mtDNA sequences of various yeast strains. Most of the 26 di- or polymorphic sites found differ by the presence or absence of a GC cluster of the majority class, here referred to as the M class, which terminate with an AGGAG motif. Comparison of sequences with and without the GC clusters reveal that elements of the subclasses M1 and M2 are inserted 3′ to a TAG, flanked by A+T rich sequences. M3 elements, in contrast, only occur in tandem arrays of two to four GC clusters; they are consistently inserted 3′ to the AGGAG terminal sequence of a preexisting cluster. The TAG or the terminal AGGAG, therefore, are regarded as being part of the target sites for M1 and M2 or M3 elements, respectively. The dinucleotide AG is in common to both target sites; it also occurs at the 3′ terminus (AGGAG). This suggests its duplication during GC cluster insertion. This notion is supported by the observation that GC clusters of the minor classes G and V similarily repeat at their 3′ terminus a GT or an AA dinucleotide, respectively, from their putative target sites.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Glucose repression ; Glucose derepression ; Regulatory genes ; Expression analysis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Yeast strains carrying one of the two regulatory mutations cat1 and cat3 are defectve in derepression of several glucose-repressible enzymes that are necessary for utilizing non-fermentable carbon sources. Hence, these strains fail to grow on ethanol, glycerol or acetate. The synthesis of isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, malate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is strongly affected in cat1 and cat3 strains. Genes CAT1 and CAT3 have been isolated by complementation of the cognate, mutations after transformation with an episomal plasmid gene library. The restriction map of CAT1 proved its allelism to the earlier isolated SNF1 gene. Both genes appear to exist as single-copy genes per haploid genome as indicated by Southern hybridization. Northern analysis has shown that the 1.35 kb CAT3 mRNA is constitutively expressed, independent of the carbon source in the medium. Derepression studies with CAT3 transformants using a multi-copy plasmid showed over-expression of glyoxylate cycle enzymes. This result would be consistent with a direct effector function for the CAT3 gene product.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Precipitation and corrosion behaviour of unstabilized and stabilized 18 10 CrNi steels after short term sensibilizing annealingThe authors have studied the precipitation behaviour of the steels X5 CrNi 18 9, X10CrNiTi 18 9 and X 10CrNiNb 18 9 after solution and sensibilization annealing, and the intercrystalline corrosion behaviour in the Straußtest. On the basis of the results obtained it was possible to determine the and carbonitrides and to define the grain segregation ranges. In the case of the unstabilized materials the behaviour is a function of the formation of chromium depleted zones. However, it is not absolute value of the depletion at the carbid/austenite interphase which controls corrosion, but the depletion in an adjacent zone of measurable thickness. Beyond that the Huey test allows the corrosion susceptibility to be determined in those regions where no continuous chromium depleted zone exists. In the case of stabilized steels the corrosion behaviour depends in addition from carbonitride precipitation, since these compounds are heavily attacked by the boiling nitride acid.
    Notes: Die Verfasser untersuchten das Ausscheidungsverhalten der Stähle X 5 CrNi 18 9, X 10CrNiTi 18 9 und X 10CrNiNb 18 9 nach Lösungs- und Sensibilisierungsglühen sowie das Verhalten gegen interkristalline Korrosion im Strauß-Versuch. Aufgrund der Ergebnisse konnte die Art der Ausscheidungen bestimmt werden (Karbid M23C6 und Karbonitride) und auch die Kornzerfallsbereiche konnten definiert werden. Im Falle des nichtstabilisierten Materials ist das Verhalten abhängig von der Bildung von chromveramten Zonen; dabei ist jedoch nicht die absolute Höhe der Verarmung an der Grenzfläche Kabid/Austenit ausschlaggebend, sondern vielmehr die Verarmung in einer Zone meßbarer Dicke. Im Huey-Versuch läßt sich außerdem die Korrosionsanfälligkeit in den Zonen ermitteln, wo keine zusammenhängende Chromverarmungszone vorliegt. Im Falle der stabilisierten Stähle ist das Korrosionsverhalten außerdem abhängig von der Karbonitridausscheidung, da diese Ausscheidungen von der siedenden Salpetersäure stark angegriffen werden.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations into the electrolytic-potentiostatic etching of stainless steels in 10 n NaOH, using a coulometerCurrent density/potential characteristics can only provide qualitative indications concerning the phenomena encountered with potentiostatic etching in 10 n NaOH. The process is best carried out in the trans-passive zone. Identification is based, not on the selective dissolution of certain standard components, but on the interference colours which can be observed as a result of the formation of cover layers of different thickness. The charge density/time characteristics also permit quantitative indications of the different phases. Current density/time curves permit a clarification of the mechanism govering the formation of cover layers. A ferritic steel (28 pC Cr) and a NiCr alloy (45 pC Cr) were found to follow a cubic law of growth, whilst CrNi steel 18-8 is initially governed by an approximately logarithmic law, followed by a zone extending over several hours where the growth begins to follow a parabolic law.
    Notes: Stromdichte-Potential-Kurven ermöglichen nur qualitative Aussagen über die Vorgänge beim potentiostatischen Ätzen in 10 n NaOH. Am günstigsten ist Ätzen im Transpassivbereich. Die Identifizierung erfolgt dabei nicht durch selektive Auflösung bestimmter Gefügebestandteile, sondern aufgrund der Interferenzfarben, die infolge der Bildung unterschiedlich starker Deckschichten zu beobachten sind. Die Ladungsdichte-Zeit-Kurven ermöglichen auch Aussagen über die Mengen der einzelnen Phasen. Stromdichte-Zeit-Kurven ermöglichen eine Aufklärung des Deckschichtbildungsmechanismus. Für einen ferritischen Stahl (28% Cr) und eine NiCr-Legierung mit 45% Cr gilt ein kubisches Wachstumsgesetz, während für CrNi-Stahl 18-8 zunächst ein annähernd logarithmisches Gesetz gilt, an das sich ein mehrstündiger Bereich anschließt, in dem übergang zu einem parabolischen Schichtwachstum erfolgt.
    Additional Material: 24 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: The relationship of the intercrystalline corrosion of a non-stabilised 18/10-chromium-nickel steel with some test solutions and with the potential in boiling 2 n H2SO4Specimens of an austenitic 18/20 nickelchromium steel with about 0.06 pC C, quenched at 1300° C and annealed for different periods of time at 550 or 675° C were potentiostatically subjected to the attack of boiling 2n-H2SO4, of a nitric / hydrofluoric acid pickle at room temperature, and of boiling acids in accordance with the Strauss, Huey and Streicher test. Subsequently, the corrosion rates were determined by weighing and the corrosion examined by visual inspection and microscopically.In the active and passive condition grain boundary corrosion is only encountered after sensitizing annealing. In this connection, the potential merely determines the intensity of the grain boundary attack, but not its occurrence as such. The influence of the potential is more marked at higher than at lower sensitizing annealing temperatures. The test results can easily be interpreted with the aid of the chrome reduction theory.In the transition zone to the transpassive condition, and in the latter, an intercrystalline corrosion attack occurs which depends but little on the sensitizing annealing, and which also occurs with solution-annealed specimens. It is also in this zone of the potential that the non-potentiostatic tests according to Huey and Streicher are carried out.The test results show a specific reaction to chrome reduction of the corrosion attack in the active and passive condition, i.e. the attack in the hydrofluoric/nitric acid pickle and in the Strauss solution. In contrast, the Huey and Streicher tests additionally bring in other properties which, in the main, have an influence on the excess potential of the cathodic part-reaction. These testing agents cannot be regarded as specific criteria for the grain decomposition proneness.
    Notes: Proben eines austenitischen 18/10-Chrom-Nickel-Stahles mit etwa 0,06% C, die von 1300° C abgeschreckt und verschieden lange bei 550 und 675° C geglüht worden waren, wurden potentiostatisch dem Angriff siedender 2n-H2SO4, einer Salpetersäure-Flußsäure-Beize bei Raumtemperatur sowie dem Angriff siedender Säuren entsprechend dem Strauß, Huey- und Streicher-Test unterworfen. Anschließend werden die Korrosionsgeschwindigkeiten durch Wägung bestimmt und der Korrosionsangriff visuell und mikroskopisch im Schliffbild untersucht.Im Aktiv- und Passivzustand tritt Korngrenzenkorrosion nur nach einer Sensibilisierungsglühbehandlung auf. Das Potential bestimmt hierbei nur die Intensität des Korngrenzenangriffs und nicht das Auftreten desselben an sich. Der Einfluß des Potentials ist bei hohen Sensibilisierungslühtemperaturen stärker ausgeprägt, als bei niedrigen Temperaturen. Die Versuchsergebnisse lassen sich mit Hilfe der Chromverarmungstheorie zwanglos deuten.Im Übergangsbereich zum Transpassivzustand erfolgt ein interkristalliner Angriff, der nur wenig von der Sensibilisierungsglühbehandlung abhängt und auch bei lösungsgeglühten Proben auftritt. In diesem Potentialbereich erfolgen auch die nicht potentiostatischen Prüfungen nach Huey und Streicher.Die Versuchsergebnisse zeigen, daß der Angriff im Aktiv- und Passivzustand, also der Angriff in der Flußsäure-Salpeter- Beize und in der Straußschen Lösung, spezifisch auf Chromverarmung ansprechen. Beim Huey- und Streicher-Test werden dagegen zusätzlich noch Eigenschaften, die im wesentlichen die Überspannung der kathodischen Teilreaktion beeinflussen, miterfaßt. Diese Prüfmittel können nicht als spezifisch für die Kornzerfallsanfälligkeit angesehen werden.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: Estimating the effect of ethnic capital on human capital investment decisions is complicated by the endogeneity of immigrants’ location choice, unobserved local correlates and the reflection problem. We exploit the institutional setting of a rare immigrant settlement policy in Germany, that generates quasi-random assignment across regions, and identify the causal impact of heterogeneous ethnic capital on educational outcomes of children. Correcting for endogenous location choice and correlated unobservables, we find that children of low-educated parents benefit significantly from the presence of high-educated parental peers of the same ethnicity. High educated parental peers from other ethnicities do not influence children’s learning achievements. Our estimates are unlikely to be confounded by the reflection problem since we study the effects of parental peers’ human capital which is pre-determined with respect to children’s outcomes. Our findings further suggest an increase in parental aspirations as a possible mechanism driving the heterogeneous ethnic capital effects, implying that profiling peers or ethnic role models could be important for migrant integration policies.
    Keywords: R23 ; J15 ; I21 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; Ethnic Capital ; Germany ; Peer Effects ; Policy Experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2015-05-08
    Description: Ethnic groups tend to agglomerate and assemble, mostly in urban areas. While ethnic clustering is critically debated in societies and the consequences for economic outcomes are under debate in research, the process is not yet well understood. A separate literature has also examined the cultural and ethnic identity of immigrants and how these affect their economic performance and societal integration. However, an unexplored channel connects ethnic clustering with ethnic identity formation. Therefore this paper examines the role of ethnic geographic clustering in the sociocultural integration of immigrants. It employs survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, combined with disaggregated information at a low geographical level from the unexploited German full census of 1970 and 1987. We employ the exogenous placement of immigrants during their recruitment in the 1960s and 1970s and find that local co-ethnic concentration affects immigrants cultural integration. Residential ethnic clustering strengthens immigrants retention of an affiliation with their respective country of origin and weakens identification with the host society. The effects are nonlinear and only become significant at relatively high levels of co-ethnic concentration for the minority identity and at very low levels of local concentration for the majority identity. Our findings are robust to the use of an instrumental variable approach.
    Keywords: J15 ; R23 ; Z10 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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