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  • SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE  (2)
  • captive breeding  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7160
    Keywords: captive breeding ; in situ conservation ; ex situ conservation ; zoos ; protected areas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Growing deterministic and stochastic threats to many wild populations of large vertebrates have focused attention on the conservation significance of captive breeding and subsequent reintroduction. However, work on both gorillas and black rhinos questions this shift in emphasis. In these species, field-based conservation can be effective if properly supported and, although this is not cheap, per capita costs may still be considerably lower than for ex situ propagation in captivity. Here we attempt to broaden the scope of this debate by contrasting the breeding success and costs of in situ and captive programmes for a range of threatened mammals. Data are scarce, but we find that across nine large-bodied genera, in situ conservation achieves comparable rates of population growth to those seen in established captive breeding programmes. Moreover, comparing budgets of well-protected reserves with zoos' own estimates of maintenance costs and the costs of zoo adoption schemes, we find that per capita costs for effective in situ conservation are consistently lower than those of maintenance in captivity. Captive breeding may be more cost-effective for smaller-bodied taxa, and will often remain desirable for large mammals restricted to one or two vulnerable wild populations. However, our results, coupled with the fact that effective in situ conservation protects intact ecosystems rather than single species, lead us to suggest that zoos might maximize their contribution to large mammal conservation by investing where possible in well-managed field-based initiatives, rather than establishing additional ex situ breeding programmes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The stagnation-point ablation rates of a graphite, a carbon-carbon composite, and four carbon-phenolic materials are measured in an arc-jet wind tunnel with a 50% hydrogen-50% helium mixture as the test gas. Flow environments are determined through measurements of static and impact pressures, heat-transfer rates to a calorimeter, and radiation spectra, and through numerical calculation of the flow through the wind tunnel, spectra, and heat-transfer rates. The environments so determined are: impact pressure approx. 3 atm, Mach number approx. 2.1, convective heat-transfer rate approx. 14 kw/sq cm, and radiative heat-transfer rate approx. 7 kw/sq cm in the absence of ablation. Ablation rates are determined from the measured rates of mass loss and recession of the ablation specimens. Compared with the predicted ablation rates obtained by running RASLE and CMA codes, the measured rates are higher by about 15% for all tested materials.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA-TM-84346 , A-9286 , NAS 1.15:84346
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The space shuttle orbiter experiments program is responsible for collecting flight data to extend the research and technology base for future aerospace vehicle design. The infrared imagery of shuttle (IRIS), catalytic surface effects, and tile gap heating experiments sponsored by Ames Research Center are part of this program. The software required to process the flight data which support these experiments is described. In addition, data analysis techniques, developed in support of the IRIS experiment, are discussed. Using the flight data base, the techniques provide information useful in analyzing and correcting problems with the experiment, and in interpreting the IRIS image obtained during the entry of the third shuttle mission.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA-TM-84345 , A-9289 , NAS 1.15:84345
    Format: application/pdf
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