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  • SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE  (11)
  • CHEMISTRY AND MATERIALS (GENERAL)  (1)
  • Electronic structure and strongly correlated systems  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Spacecraft charging has been widely observed in geosynchronous orbit on the ATS-5 and ATS-6 pair and on the SCATHA spacecraft. An adequate theory for explaining the observations exist. Neither the data or theory can be exported to low polar orbit and its drastically different environment. Evidence of charging on the DMSP F6 spacecraft is presented. A simple model is set up explaining the observations. Two independent instruments on the spacecraft showed charging to a moderate (44 volts) negative potential. The selection spectrometer showed a flux of 2 billion electrons per sq. cm. sec. ster. peaked at 9.5 keV. This was marginally sufficient to overcome the flux of cold ambient ions. Charging calculations are presented showing where simplications are justified and where serious uncertainties exist. More serious charging is predicted for the Shuttle in polar orbit.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Environ. Interactions Technol., 1983; p 125-130
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Questions are addressed concerning how large space structures in polar orbit will interact with auroral environments. Because spacecraft charging at ionospheric attitudes does not seriously threaten the operation of today's relatively small polar satellites the subject of environment interactions has not received the widespread attention given to it at geostationary altitude. As a matter of economics it is desirable to apply as much as possible of what was learned about spacecraft interactions at geostationary orbit to low Earth orbits. The environment at auroral latitudes in the ionosphere differs from that encountered at geostationary altitude in at least two major aspects. (1) There is a large reservoir of high-density, cold plasma which tends to mitigate charging effects by providing a large source of charged particles from which neutralizing currents maybe drawn. Significant wake effects behind large structures will introduce new problems with differential charging. (2) Between the magnetic equator and the ionosphere, auroral electrons frequently undergo field-aligned accelerations of several kilovolts. In such environments, fluxes of energetic protons are usually below the levels of instrumentation sensitivity.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Environ. Interactions Technol., 1983; p 109-123
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: An electron beam system was operated over a wide range of beam currents and energies for periods both in sunlight and in eclipse. Complex pitch angle modulations of the electron spectra are separately decomposed for each beam operation. When electrons are emitted perpendicular to the magnetic field with an energy of 3 keV and a current of 0.10 mA they return as a coherent beam only to the parallel detector. Throughout the beam operations the pitch angle distributions show electrons with energy less than beam energy streaming along the field line. Analytic expressions for the satellite electric field are constructed and particle trajectories are determined.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Charging Technol., 1980; p 642-664
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Computer simulation to determine spacecraft charging on P78-2 (SCATHA) during a substorm and for modeling the effects of electron beam emission on the P78-2 ground potential for a variety of beam voltages and currents was used. Measured and computed spacecraft potentials are obtained to within several hundred eV. Computation of the electron beam emission effects on the spacecraft ground potential are shown. It is concluded that the spacecraft ground potential can be controlled by emitting an electron beam.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Charging Technol., 1980; p 632-641
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Angular distributions of ions and electrons from the Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA) were investigated for the floating potential and the differential charging of the spacecraft as deduced from Liouville's theorem. The following was found: (1) short time charging events on the spacecraft are associated with short time increases of the intensity of 10 keV to 1 MeV electrons; (2) short time changes of the spacecraft differential potential are associated with simultaneous short time changes of the spacecraft floating potential; (3) solar UV intensities in penumbra anticorrelate with the spacecraft floating potentials; (4) NASCAP predicts correct forms of sunshade asymmetric surface potentials; (5) certain enhancements of the intensity of energetic ions diminishes the absolute value of the spacecraft surface potential; (6) spacecraft discharging events in times shorter than 20 sec did not change in the spectrum of the energetic plasma; (7) partial discharging of the spacecraft occurred upon entry into a magnetically depleted region; and (8) steady state potentials and transient potentials of duration less than 30 seconds are simulated by the NASCAP code.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Charging Tecnol., 1980; p 608-631
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The precipitation electrons in the auroral environment are highly variable in their energy and intensity in both space and time. As such they are a source of potential hazard to the operation of the Space Shuttle and other large spacecraft operating in polar orbit. In order to assess these hazards both the average and extreme states of the precipitating electrons must be determined. Work aimed at such a specification is presented. First results of a global study of the average characteristics are presented. In this study the high latitude region was divided into spatial elements in magnetic local time and corrected geomagnetic latitude. The average electron spectrum was then determined in each spatial element for seven different levels of activity as measured by K sub p using an extremely large data set of auroral observations. Second a case study of an extreme auroral electron environment is presented, in which the electrons are accelerated through field aligned potential as high as 30,000 volts and in which the spacecraft is seen to charge negatively to a potential approaching .5 kilovolts.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Environ. Interactions Technol., 1983; p 131-153
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The 100 eV to approximately 1 MeV plasma environment encountered by the P78-2 Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA) satellite during its initial operation period was studied. Forty-four days of 10 minute averages of the four moments of the electron and ion distribution functions calculated from the SC5 and SC9 energetic particle measurements were analyzed to determine occurrence frequency, local time variation, geomagnetic activity variation, and L shell variation. The single and double Maxwellian parameters derived from the four moments were similarly analyzed. The interrelationships between the moments and derived parameters were computed and the results compared with the ATS-5 and ATS-6 atlas. Results of this analysis establish a baseline range for the SCATHA plasma environment.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Charging Technol., 1980; p 802-813
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The statistical occurrence of spacecraft charging at near-geosynchronous orbit in daylight is studied with reference to results of an experiment conducted on the SCATHA satellite. In particular, it is found that: (1) the external current that creates high negative satellite frame potentials is the high-energy electron current from the electron population with energies greater than about 30 keV; (2) the electron current to the satellite from particles with energies less than about 30 keV neither drives the frame potential nor provides the current to balance the high-energy populations; and (3) the ion current provided from the entire range of measured ions is also not the primary source of the balancing current.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: AD-A165444 , AFGL-TR-86-0057 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 1474-149
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Instruments on the SCEX 3 rocket payload were used to study charging during electron beam emissions. The data show that electrostatic analyzers can be used to measure vehicle charging and direct beam return currents in dense plasma conditions. The data also show return current dependencies on pitch angle, beam current and beam energy. It is found that if the proper care is taken, ESAs can be used to detect charging on vehicles in low altitude orbits which are contaminated with high levels of outgassing and in dense plasma regimes. These results are particularly important for the TSS-1 electrodynamic tether program where ESAs are being used to determine Shuttle charging levels during tether employment and to look for high fluxes of directly returning electrons during electron generator operations to balance the Shuttle charging.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (ISSN 0018-9499); 38; 1622-162
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The nightside particle environment as observed by the AFGL Rapid Scan Particle Detector on SCATHA showing large, sudden simultaneous changes in the fluxes of electrons and protons with energies above 50 keV (dropouts) is considered. An interesting feature of SCATHA dropouts is the quasiperiodic behavior of the particle flux amplitudes which often vary with a period of the order of 15 minutes both during the dropout and after the return. A flux return during eclipse caused a major spacecraft charging event of several kilovolts. The SCATHA observations are compared with those reported for other geosynchronous satellites. In agreement with ATS-5, a marked dependence in the frequency of occurrence due to an effect of the orbit is found. ATS-5 experienced few dropouts during quiet geomagnetic conditions. However, for an L shell greater than seven, SCATHA particle dropouts occur routinely during quiet conditions. Thus, for SCATHA's orbit, both the orbital position and geomagnetic conditions must be taken into account in evaluating the potential hazard of flux returns.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Charging Technol., 1980; p 755-767
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