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  • SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE  (4)
  • CHEMISTRY AND MATERIALS (GENERAL)  (1)
  • 1985-1989  (5)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Spacecraft charging has been widely observed in geosynchronous orbit on the ATS-5 and ATS-6 pair and on the SCATHA spacecraft. An adequate theory for explaining the observations exist. Neither the data or theory can be exported to low polar orbit and its drastically different environment. Evidence of charging on the DMSP F6 spacecraft is presented. A simple model is set up explaining the observations. Two independent instruments on the spacecraft showed charging to a moderate (44 volts) negative potential. The selection spectrometer showed a flux of 2 billion electrons per sq. cm. sec. ster. peaked at 9.5 keV. This was marginally sufficient to overcome the flux of cold ambient ions. Charging calculations are presented showing where simplications are justified and where serious uncertainties exist. More serious charging is predicted for the Shuttle in polar orbit.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Environ. Interactions Technol., 1983; p 125-130
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Questions are addressed concerning how large space structures in polar orbit will interact with auroral environments. Because spacecraft charging at ionospheric attitudes does not seriously threaten the operation of today's relatively small polar satellites the subject of environment interactions has not received the widespread attention given to it at geostationary altitude. As a matter of economics it is desirable to apply as much as possible of what was learned about spacecraft interactions at geostationary orbit to low Earth orbits. The environment at auroral latitudes in the ionosphere differs from that encountered at geostationary altitude in at least two major aspects. (1) There is a large reservoir of high-density, cold plasma which tends to mitigate charging effects by providing a large source of charged particles from which neutralizing currents maybe drawn. Significant wake effects behind large structures will introduce new problems with differential charging. (2) Between the magnetic equator and the ionosphere, auroral electrons frequently undergo field-aligned accelerations of several kilovolts. In such environments, fluxes of energetic protons are usually below the levels of instrumentation sensitivity.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Environ. Interactions Technol., 1983; p 109-123
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The precipitation electrons in the auroral environment are highly variable in their energy and intensity in both space and time. As such they are a source of potential hazard to the operation of the Space Shuttle and other large spacecraft operating in polar orbit. In order to assess these hazards both the average and extreme states of the precipitating electrons must be determined. Work aimed at such a specification is presented. First results of a global study of the average characteristics are presented. In this study the high latitude region was divided into spatial elements in magnetic local time and corrected geomagnetic latitude. The average electron spectrum was then determined in each spatial element for seven different levels of activity as measured by K sub p using an extremely large data set of auroral observations. Second a case study of an extreme auroral electron environment is presented, in which the electrons are accelerated through field aligned potential as high as 30,000 volts and in which the spacecraft is seen to charge negatively to a potential approaching .5 kilovolts.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Environ. Interactions Technol., 1983; p 131-153
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The statistical occurrence of spacecraft charging at near-geosynchronous orbit in daylight is studied with reference to results of an experiment conducted on the SCATHA satellite. In particular, it is found that: (1) the external current that creates high negative satellite frame potentials is the high-energy electron current from the electron population with energies greater than about 30 keV; (2) the electron current to the satellite from particles with energies less than about 30 keV neither drives the frame potential nor provides the current to balance the high-energy populations; and (3) the ion current provided from the entire range of measured ions is also not the primary source of the balancing current.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: AD-A165444 , AFGL-TR-86-0057 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 1474-149
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of the Trapped Radiation Effects Panel for the Space Environmental Effects on Materials Workshop are presented. The needs of the space community for new data regarding effects of the space environment on materials, including electronics are listed. A series of questions asked of each of the panels at the workshop are addressed. Areas of research which should be pursued to satisfy the requirements for better knowledge of the environment and better understanding of the effects of the energetic charged particle environment on new materials and advanced electronics technology are suggested.
    Keywords: CHEMISTRY AND MATERIALS (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA(SDIO Space Environmental Effects on Materials Workshop, Part 2; p 597-605
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