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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The effect of trapped and precipitated particles in the magnetosphere on the measurement of galactic X-rays and gamma rays is discussed. To minimize contamination caused by electron precipitation, most galactic X-ray and gamma ray measurements are conducted at equatorial or relatively low to middle latitudes where the influence of auroral effects is expected to be small. Substorm-related VLF phase perturbations also affect the measurements. If such perturbation are indicative of electron precipitation at middle to low latitudes, then their relatively high frequency of occurrence, as many as 100 per year, is evidence that electron precipitation at these latitudes may pose a problem to some galactic X-ray and gamma ray measurements. Charts and maps are presented to show: (1) phase recordings from sixteen sub-ionospheric VLF propagation paths, (2) map of great circle propagation paths, (3) ionization rates in the nighttime ionosphere due to several sources, and (4) computer phase variation for the NLK-APL path versus electron flux for different e-folding energies.
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Proc. of the Workshop on Electron Contamination in X-ray Astronomy Expt.; 14 p
    Format: text
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