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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: This article describes the histological and ultrastructural appearance of the interface created in the implantation bed, between bone tissue and implants made of dense sintered hydroxyapatite (HA). Biopsies from dog subjects included: (a) loaded permucosal dental implants for tooth substitution, (b) subperiosteally placed implants for alveolar bone correction, (c) endosseously placed dental root implants to retain ridge form following extraction. The light and electron microscopical results show extensive bone apposition on the osseous sides of the implant surfaces. There is an intimate, direct bone contact without any visible interruption. The bone is of normal lamellar type and continuously connected with the trabecular bone. Bone has grown into the finest surface irregularities of the implant. Collagen fibers of the calcified bone matrix are observed within a distance less than 500 Å from the implant surface. The thin (20-100 Å) electron dense layer at the bone-implant interface resembled the lamina limitans of organic bone matrix, also seen at the inner walls of the osteocytes lacunes. Deposition of bone gives rise to a biologically stable bone-implant interface, without disturbance of the physiological bone turnover. This is seen as very favorable for desired long term fixation of implant to bone.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Im Temperaturbereich von 60 bis 100°C wird die radikalische Polymerisation von Styrol, Methylmethacrylat und Acrylnitril von α.α′-Dicyanodibenzylen ausgelöst, die in α-und α′-Stellung mit Ester-, Nitril-, Amid- oder Phenylgruppen disubstituiert sind. Bei 100 bis 110°C ist auch das α.α.α′.α′-Tetracarboxymethyldibenzyl aktiv. Vinylacetat und Vinylchlorid werden durch diese Initiatoren kaum polymerisiert.Fur die Polymerisation des Styrols wurden die Bruttogeschwindigkeitskonstanten Kp, für viele Dibenzyle und fur Peroxide vergleichbarer Aktivitat dilatornetrisch bestirnrnt. Norrnalerweise sind die Zeit-Urnsatz-Kurven rnit den Dibenzylen und den Peroxiden vergleichbar; das Tetracyanodibenzyl allerdings bewirkt nur eine unvollstandige Polymerisation.Der große Einfiuß von Substituenten in α-Stellung oder in den Phenylringen der Dibenzyle auf die Polymerisation des Styrols wird diskutiert. Dabei ist auch die Stereochernie wichtig. Die meso-Form des Dinitrildiesters ergibt eine 2.5- bis 3.5 ma1 schnellere Polyrnerisation als das dl-Isornere.Die Dissoziationsgeschwindigkeitskonstanten kd der Initiatoren wurden NMR-spektroskopisch aus der Linienbreite bestirnmt. Die Dinitrildiester sind gute Initiatoren, wahrend die α.α′-Dicyanodibenzyle rnit weiteren Nitril- oder Phenylgruppen in α- und α′-Stellung wenig geeignet sind. SchlieBlich wurde die 1.2-Addition einiger der Dibenzyle an Styrol im Ternperaturbereich von 120 bis 150°C rnit der Methode der chernisch induzierten KernPolarisation (CIDNP) untersucht.
    Notes: The radical polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate and acrylonitrile is initiated by α.α′-dicyanodibenzyls α.α′-disubstituted with ester, nitrile, amide or phenyl groups in the temperature range 60 to 100°C and by α.α.α′.α′-tetracarboxymethyldibenzyl at 100 to 110°C. Vinylacetate and vinylchloride show a low reactivity.The overall polymerization rate constants Kp have been determined dilatometrically for styrene initiated by a large number of dibenzyls and comparable peroxides. The styrene polymerization curves are generally comparable with those of peroxides. A notable exception is tetracyanodibenzyl.The strong influence of α- and ring-substituents in the dibenzyls on the styrene polymerization rate is discussed. The stereochemistry is also important : the meso α.α′-dicyanodibenzyls α.α′-disubstituted with ester groups give a 2.5 to 3.5 fold faster polymerization than their dl isomers.The initiator efficiency is related to the kd values, determined from NMR line width measurements. The α.α′- dicyanodibenzyls α.α′-disubstituted with ester groups are good initiators, while those with phenyl groups and nitrile groups are inefficient.Relevant to initiation and termination, the 1.2-addition of some of the dimers to styrene at 120 to 150°C has been studied with chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP).
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: aromatic polyamides ; pendent groups ; 5-phenylsulfonylisophthalic acid ; polycondensation ; NMR, solubility ; water uptake ; mechanical strength ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of polyisophthalamides containing phenylsulfonyl groups was prepared from seven aromatic diamines and 5-phenylsulfonylisophthalic acid by the phosphorylation condensation method, and from 5-phenylsulfonylisophthaloyl chloride by the solution polycondensation method at low temperature. When compared to the analogous unmodified polyisophthalamides, the modified ones were found to be essentially amorphous, and they showed better solubility in organic solvents, and slightly higher glass transition temperatures. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the polyisophthalamides containing pendent phenylsulfonyl groups have thermal stabilities similar to the unmodified ones. Mechanical strength of films and water sorption were also investigated. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: condensation monomers ; amide-ether copolymers ; solution and interfacial polycondensation ; NMR ; GPC ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis and characterization of aromatic polyamides containing oxyethylene units is reported, and the differences observed in polycondensation yields, molecular weights, and molecular weight distributions, as a function of the method of synthesis, are discussed. Four diamines containing oxyethylene units and aromatic rings, meta and para oriented, and their corresponding hydrochlorides were prepared as condensation monomers to be combined with isophthaloyl chloride (IPC) and terephthaloyl chloride (TPC). High molecular weight polyamides were obtained by interfacial and low-temperature solution methods. Values of (OVERLINE)M(/OVERLINE)n up to 6 × 104 g/mol and (OVERLINE)M(/OVERLINE)w up to 2 × 105 g/mol could be measured by gel permeation chromatography using aromatic polyamide standards, and values of (OVERLINE)M(/OVERLINE)n up to 2 × 105 g/mol and (OVERLINE)M(/OVERLINE)w up to 5 × 105 g/mol by using polystyrene standards. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-6258
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of polyisophthalamides containing pendent oxybenzoyl groups were prepared from 5-oxybenzoyl-isophthaloyl chloride and aromatic diamines. The analogous unsubstituted polyisophthalamides were also prepared in order to compare the two series and to determine the effect of oxybenzoyl pendent groups on the properties of aromatic polyamides. The modified polymers exhibited better solubility than, and approximately the same glass transition temperatures (in the range 260-290°C) as, the parent unsubstituted polymers. The mechanical strength of polymer films was affected only to a small extent by the presence of side groups, but the thermal resistance was negatively affected, with the result that polyisophthalamides with oxybenzoyl pendent groups began to decompose at about 360°C (TGA), 60-100°C lower than the unsubstituted polyisophthalamides. By means of an appropriate thermal treatment, crosslinking of the modified polymers was achieved and their thermal resistance significantly enhanced.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: aromatic polyamides ; polyisophthalamides ; phenylthio pendent groups ; 5-phenylthioisophthalic acid ; phosphorylation polycondensation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of polyisophthalamides containing pendent phenylthio groups was prepared from seven aromatic diamines and 5-phenylthioisophthalic acid by the phosphorylation polycondensation method. The properties of these polymers were compared with those of the analogous unmodified ones. The modified polymers exhibited better solubility in organic solvents than their unmodified counterparts. They also showed glass transition temperatures that were lower by approximately 30°C. However, the presence of the side groups did not bring about any substantial lowering of the thermal stability as measured by TGA. Other properties investigated were mechanical strength and water sorption.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: aromatic polyamides ; synthesis ; pendent groups ; solubility ; thermal and mechanical properties ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polyisophthalamides containing benzoyl pendent groups were prepared from 5-benzoylisophthaloyl chloride and seven aromatic diamines, and their properties were compared with those of unsubstituted polyisophthalamides. The incorporation of one pendent benzoyl group per repeat unit brought about a decrease in the glass transition temperature of 10-30°C, relative to the unmodified polymers, while the thermal resistance (programmed TGA) remained unchanged or went down slightly. Other properties investigated were mechanical properties, solubility, and water absorption. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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