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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (7,845)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The micelle-forming monomers of sodium 6-acrylamidocaproate (Na 6-AAC), sodium 11-acrylamidoundecanoate (Na 11-AAU), sodium 11-(N-methylacrylamido) undecanoate (Na 11-MAAU), and sodium 11-(N-ethylacrylamido) undecanoate (Na 11-EAAU) have been synthesized and polymerized. Except poly(Na 6-AAC), the molecular weights of the other three poly(sodium acrylamidoalkanoate) s were over 106. They behave as strong anionic polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions. Their solution properties, such as viscosity, charge density, and radius of gyration, were investigated. The performance of these anionic polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids in water treatment were assessed by jar test. Poly(Na 6-AAC) and poly (Na 11-AAU) were superior to poly (Na 11-MAAU) and poly (Na 11-EAAU) in terms of flocs settling. All these four anionic polyelectrolytes tested in water treatment are as effective as a commercially available cationic polyamine organic coagulant (Hyperfloc CP 753).
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0323-7648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Die Copolymerisation von Acrylnitril und Acrylaten wurde in Dimethylformamid bei hohem Acrylnitril/Acrylat-Verhältnis im Temperaturbereich von -50 bis +10°C durch Lithiumalkoxide initiiert. Die Bedingungen zur direkten Präparation von Spinnlösungen der Copolymere wurden erarbeitet. Das Lösungsspinnen dieser Copolymere durch Orientierungsfällung ergab Fasern mit hohen Festigkeitswerten.
    Notes: The copolymerization of acrylonitrile with acrylates has been initiated by lithium alkoxides in dimethylformamide at a high acrylonitrile/acrylate ratio over the temperature range from -50 to 10°C. The conditions for a direct preparation of spinning solutions of the copolymers were determined. The solution-spinning of these copolymers by orientational precipitation yielded fibres exhibiting high strength properties.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0323-7648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Unter Hernziehung unterschiedlicher Präparationsmethoden wurde die Struktur verdünnter und konzentrierter (0,01 bis 9,8%) Lösungen des starkettigen Polyamidohydrazid (PAH) mittels Elektronenmikroskopie in zwei Lösungsmitteln (DMSO und DMAA) untersucht. Beginnend mit der Konzentration 0,01% erfolgt unterschiedliche Strukturierung in diesen Lösungsmitteln, die bezüglich des Polymers eine unterschiedliche Güte aufweisen. Die Ergebnisse wurden früheren Untersuchungen zur Rheologie konzentrierter PAH-Lösungen in den genannten Lösungsmitteln gegenüber gestellt.
    Notes: The structure of dilute and concentrated solutions (0.01-9.8%) of rigid-chain polyamidohydrazide (PAH) in dimethylsulphoxide and dimethylacetamide was investigated by electron microscopy using various preparation techniques. Starting with a 0.01% concentration, PAH shows two distinct types of structuration in the solvents. The results are compared with previously studied rheological properties of PAH in these solvents.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Advantages of a hollow-fiber hemodialyzer have been well described. The goal of this program was to provide a working model of a noncellulosic hollow fiber artificial kidney with nonthrombogenic blood-contacting surfaces, low blood-priming volume and low pressure drop, a satisfactory rate of urea transport, and high rate of ultrafiltration of water. Also, the reliability and utility of these devices was to be demonstrated through clinical evaluation.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: interpenetrating polymer networks ; poly(dimethylsiloxane-urethane) ; poly(methyl methacrylate) ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Simultaneous IPNs of poly(dimethyl siloxane-urethane) (PDMSU)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and related isomers have been prepared by using new oligomers of bis(β-hydroxyethoxymethyl)poly(dimethyl siloxane)s (PDMS diols) and new crosslinkers biuret triisocyanate (BTI) and tris(β-hydroxylethoxymethyl dimethylsiloxy) phenylsilane (Si-triol). Their phase morphology have been characterized by DSC and SEM. The SEM phase domain size is decreased by increasing crosslink density of the PDMSU network. A single phase IPN of PDMSU/PMMA can be made at an Mc = 1000 and 80 wt % of PDMSU. All of the pseudo- or semi-IPNs and blends of PDMSU and PMMA were phase separated with phase domain sizes ranging from 0.2 to several micrometers. The full IPNs of PDMSU/PMMA have better thermal resistance compared to the blends of linear PDMSU and linear PMMA. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer International 41 (1996), S. 419-425 
    ISSN: 0959-8103
    Keywords: polyurethane ; cell growth ; phase separation ; hydrogen bonding index ; cytotoxicity ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Polyurethanes (PU) with suitable soft segments have been found to be good blood-compatible polymers and have attracted much attention recently. In this study, various molar amounts of 4,4′-methylene bisphenyl isocyanate reacted with poly(tetramethylene oxide) were synthesized to explore the optimal ratio of hard/soft segments for cell attachment and proliferation in in vitro systems. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis were used to determine the physical properties, hydrogen bonding index (HBI) and transmission electron microscopy to observe the phase-separation phenomena in the materials, and 3T3 fibroblast to evaluate the dependence of the cell proliferation at 37°C on the material properties. Our results show that cell attachment and proliferation are closely related to the cell growth surface, which in turn is controlled by (1) the ratio of hard to total segment concentration and (2) the recrystallization temperature (Tc) of PU. To obtain a good cell growth surface, the ratio of hard to total segment concentration is found to be between 0.4 and 0.6, and HBI is between 1.5 and 2.1. Furthermore, when the Tc of PU is near the physiology temperature, a stable surface for cell growth can be provided. The shorter molecules in the soft segment region can rearrange the molecular chain at 37°C.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0721-3115
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The explosive performance of ∊-CL-20 was found to be approximately 14% greater than HMX as determined by cylinder expansion and tantalum plate acceleration experiments. This makes it the most powerful explosive ever tested at small volume expansions of the detonation products. In general CL-20 is more sensitive than HMX. However, the sensitivity of CL-20 to one-dimensional shock loading was found to be similar to HMX.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Semi-interpenetrating networks have been synthesized from vernonia oil-sebacic acid polyester network and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Bond interchange reactions during mixing of the two materials led to the formation of a miscible copolymer mixture, in which the vernonia oil was then cross-linked with sebacic acid. The materials were phase-separated, exhibiting two glass transitions, when the network was synthesized at 160°C, below the crystallization temperature of PET: however, a single stable glass transition (Tg) results after the material is heated to above the melting temperature of PET and cooled. When the vernonia polyester network was completely formed at 250°C, above the crystallization temperature of PET, noncrystalline, single-Tg material was created. The two-phase semi-IPNs were much tougher than were their constituent materials, with the 50% semi-IPN over 15 times tougher than the PET from which it was made and over 50 times tougher than the neat vernonia oil elastomer, with tensile energy to break of 1780 kJ/m3. The single-Tg material was nearly 2.5 times as tough as the two-phase material, with energy to break of 4400 kJ/m3. The microstructure of the two-phase 50% semi-IPN was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, which showed regularly shaped spherulites of 10-20 μm in diameter, as compared to irregularly shaped spherulites observed in a similar 50/50 castor oil urethane/PET semi-IPN, in which the network formed simultaneously with PET crystallization. Scanning electron microscopy of the semi-IPN fracture surfaces showed microscopic fibrils several hundred nanometers in diameter in both the two-phase and single-Tg materials, although only the two-phase semi-IPN had a macroscopically rough surface. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The self-assembly of azobenzene amphiphiles by themselves and in the presence of a nonionic polymer has been studied. The conditions that yield homeotropic and uniaxial films, i.e., the optical properties of a single crystal, by spin-coating were identified. It is shown that these films constitute a very sensitive write and erase recording medium. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The peroxide curing of highly saturated nitrile rubber was analyzed. Reactions such as chain scission occurred that account for the drop in physical properties. The results are compared with an alternative cross-linking that is currently being assessed. With a new curing agent the chain-scission reaction was not present and the properties of the compounds were improved. Finally, an estimation of the free volume of the materials tested was attempted by using the WLF equation. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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