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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (8,526)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The effect of surface roughness on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis was examined. Human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured on titanium (Ti) disks that had been prepared by one of five different treatment regimens. All disks were pretreated with hydrofluoric acid-nitric acid and washed (PT). PT disks were also: washed, and then electropolished (EP); fine sandblasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (FA); coarse sandblasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (CA); or Ti plasma-sprayed (TPS). Standard tissue culture plastic was used as a control. Surface topography and profile were evaluated by brightfield and darkfield microscopy, cold field emission scanning electron microscopy, and laser confocal microscopy, while chemical composition was mapped using energy dispersion X-ray analysis and elemental distribution determined using Auger electron spectroscopy. The effect of surface roughness on the cells was evaluated by measuring cell number, [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, alkaline phosphatase specific activity, [3H]uridine incorporation into RNA, [3H]proline incorporation into collagenase digestible protein (CDP) and noncollagenase-digestible protein (NCP), and [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan.Based on surface analysis, the five different Ti surfaces were ranked in order of smoothest to roughest: EP, PT, FA, CA, and TPS. A TiO2 layer was found on all surfaces that ranged in thickness from 100 Å in the smoothest group to 300 Å in the roughest. When compared to confluent cultures of cells on plastic, the number of cells was reduced on the TPS surfaces and increased on the EP surfaces, while the number of cells on the other surfaces was equivalent to plastic. [3H]Thymidine incorporation was inversely related to surface roughness. Alkaline phosphatase specific activity in isolated cells was found to decrease with increasing surface roughness, except for those cells cultured on CA. In contrast, enzyme activity in the cell layer was only decreased in cultures grown on FA- and TPS-treated surfaces. A direct correlation between surface roughness and RNA and CDP production was found. Surface roughness had no apparent effect on NCP production. Proteoglycan synthesis by the cells was inhibited on all the surfaces studied, with the largest inhibition observed in the CA and EP groups. These results demonstrate that surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and matrix production in vitro. The results also suggest that implant surface roughness may play a role in determining phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Random copolymers of ethylene with 1-butene, 1-octene, and 1-octadecene have been prepared using a homogeneous vanadium-based catalyst system. Comonomer contents determined by 13C-NMR analysis of polymer solutions are in the range 1-10 mol%. Crystallinities were estimated by means of density measurements, x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, laser Raman spectroscopy, and CPMAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The results are compared with those obtained for heterogeneous copolymers of ethylene containing 1-4 mol% 1-butene. As the comonomer content is increased, the crystallinity decreases. The dimension perpendicular to the 110 plane in orthorhombic crystallites decreases linearly with crystallinity. This decrease in crystallite size is accompanied by an increase in the size of the orthorhombic unit cell. For copolymers containing large amounts of 1-octene and 1-octadecene, a second crystalline form appears. Differences in estimates of crystallinity are discussed in terms of looser packing in highly branched copolymers and the extent to which the second crystalline form participates in the phase structure.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Titanium (Ti) surface roughness affects proliferation, differentiation, and matrix production of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. Cytokines and growth factors produced in the milieu surrounding an implant may also be influenced by its surface, thereby modulating the healing process. This study examined the effect of surface roughness on the production of two factors known to have potent effects on bone, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). MG-63 cells were cultured on Ti disks of varying roughness. The surfaces were ranked from smoothest to roughest: electropolished (EP), pretreated with hydrofluoric acid-nitric acid (PT), fine sand-blasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (EA), coarse sand-blasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (CA), and Ti plasma-sprayed (TPS). Cells were cultured in 24-well polystyrene (plastic) dishes as controls and to determine when confluence was achieved. Media were collected and cell number determined 24 h postconfluence. PGE2 and TGF-β1 levels in the conditioned media were determined using commercial radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, respectively. There was an inverse relationship between cell number and Ti surface roughness. Total PGE2 content in the media of cultures grown on the three roughest surfaces (FA, CA, and TPS) was significantly increased 1.5-4.0 times over that found in media of cultures grown on plastic or smooth surfaces. When PGE2 production was expressed per cell number, CA and TPS cultures exhibited six- to eightfold increases compared to cultures on plastic and smooth surfaces. There was a direct relationship between TGF-β1 production and surface roughness, both in terms of total TGF-β1 per culture and when normalized for cell number. TGF-β1 production on rough surfaces (CA and TPS) was three to five times higher than on plastic. These studies indicate that substrate surface roughness affects cytokine and growth factor production by MG-63 cells, suggesting that surface roughness may modulate the activity of cells interacting with an implant, and thereby affect tissue healing and implant success. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Although it is well accepted that implant success is dependent on various surface properties, little is known about the effect of surface roughness on cell metabolism or differentiation, or whether the effects vary with the maturational state of the cells interacting with the implant. In the current study, we examined the effect of titanium (Ti) surface roughness on chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and matrix synthesis using cells derived from known stages of endochondral development. Chondrocytes derived from the resting zone (RCs) and growth zone (GCs) of rat costochondral cartilage were cultured on Ti disks that were prepared as follows: HF-HNO3-treated and washed (PT); PT-treated and electropolished (EP); fine sand-blasted, HCl-H2SO4-etched, and washed (FA); coarse sand-blasted, HCl-H2SO4-etched, and washed (CA); or Ti plasma-sprayed (TPS). Based on surface analysis, the Ti surfaces were ranked from smoothest to roughest: EP, PT, FA, CA, and TPS. Cell proliferation was assessed by cell number and [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and RNA synthesis was assessed by [3H]-uridine incorporation. Differentiation was determined by alkaline phosphatase specific activity (AL-Pase). Matrix production was measured by [3H]-proline incorporation into collagenase-digestible (CDP) and noncollagenase-digestible (NCP) protein and by [35S]-sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan. GCs required two trypsinizations for complete removal from the culture disks; the number of cells released by the first trypsinization was generally decreased with increasing surface roughness while that released by the second trypsinization was increased. In RC cultures, cell number was similarly decreased on the rougher surfaces; only minimal numbers of RCs were released by a second trypsinization. [3H]-thymidine incorporation by RCs decreased with increasing surface roughness while that by GCs was increased. [3H]-Uridine incorporation by both GCs and RCs was greater on rough surfaces. Conversely, ALPase in the cell layer and isolated cells of both cell types was significantly decreased. GC CDP and NCP production was significantly decreased on rough surfaces while CDP production by RC cells was significantly decreased on smooth surfaces. [35S]-sulfate incorporation by RCs and GCs was decreased on all surfaces compared to tissue culture plastic. The results of this study indicate that surface roughness affects chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and matrix synthesis, and that this regulation is cell maturation dependent. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: implant ; titanium ; osteoblasts ; prostaglandin ; indomethacin ; surface roughness ; 1α,25-(OH)2D3 ; differentiation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Surface roughness affects proliferation, differentiation (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), local factor production [transforming growth factor (TGFβ) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)], and response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 (1,25) of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. In this study, we examined whether the effect of surface roughness on MG63 cells is mediated by prostaglandins produced by the cells. Unalloyed titanium (Ti) disks were pretreated with HF/HNO3 (PT) and then machined and acid-etched (MA). Disks were also coarse grit-sandblasted (SB), coarse grit-sandblasted and acid-etched (CA), or plasma-sprayed with Ti particles (PS). The surfaces, from smoothest to roughest, were PT, MA, CA, SB, and PS. MG63 cells were cultured to confluence on the Ti disks in the presence or absence of 10-7M indomethacin (Indo), a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase activity, resulting in decreased prostaglandin production. When the cells reached confluence, cell number, cell layer alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPase), and osteocalcin (OC) and latent TGFβ (LTGFβ) production were determined. In addition, confluent cultures which had been grown in the absence of Indo were exposed to 10-7M 1,25, 10-7M Indo, or a combination of the two for 24 h. On the rougher surfaces, cell number was decreased and ALPase, OC, and LTGFβ were increased. When indomethacin was present throughout the culture period, the effect of surface roughness on cell number, OC, and LTGFβ was abolished. ALPase was reduced, but surface roughness-dependent effects were still observed. Addition of indomethacin to confluent cultures for 24 h had no effect on any of the parameters examined, with one exception: Cells cultured on MA surfaces exhibited a more differentiated phenotype. 1,25 increased all parameters examined on SB, CA, and PS surfaces. When indomethacin was added with 1,25, the 1,25-dependent effects on cell number and OC and LTGFβ production were abolished; however, ALPase was unaffected. This indicates that bone cell response to systemic hormones may be modified by implant surface roughness. This effect may be mediated, at least in part, by prostaglandins produced by the same cells. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 41, 489-496, 1998.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Previously observed bioactivity of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethyelene oxide)-heparin (PDMS-PEO-Hep) triblock copolymers has prompted studies of the surface and bulk character of this copolymer using angular-dependent electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ADESCA), static secondary mass spectroscopy (SIMS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Because the low-energy PDMS phase dominates surfaces of this copolymer when solvent cast under air or vacuum conditions, attempts were made to explain surface restructuring and rearrangements induced in hydrated or aqueous environments that permit surface accessibility and bioactivity of heparin moieties. Based on comparisons with PDMS, PEO, and heparin homopolymers, PEO/heparin blends, and an unheparinized PDMS-PEO diblock copolymer, PDMS-PEO-heparin demonstrates both phase-mixed and phase-separated regions in DSC analysis. During annealing cycles above the Tg values of the copolymer constituents, phase-mixed regions become increasingly phase separated and PEO enriched. TGA analysis confirmed the presence of block copolymer constituents and presented evidence of intermolecular segmental interactions, hence phase-mixing in the copolymers. ADESCA analysis indicates that the outer 5 Å of both the PDMS-PEO and PDMS-PEO-Hep copolymers is essentially pure PDMS. However, significant amounts of PEO are detected 5 to 20 Å below the surface. Static SIMS also detects the presence of PDMS at the surfaces of the PDMS-PEO and PDMS-PEO-Hep copolymers. Compositional models based on ADESCA, SIMS, and DSC data are presented for desiccated and hydrated copolymer surfaces.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: implant ; titanium ; osteoblasts ; surface roughness ; 1α,25- (OH)2D3 ; differentiation ; local factor ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Surface roughness has been shown to affect differentiation and local factor production of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. This study examined whether surface roughness alters cellular response to circulating hormones such as 1α,25-(OH)2D3. Unalloyed titanium (Ti) disks were pretreated with HF/HNO3 (PT) and then were machined and acid-etched (MA). Ti disks also were sandblasted (SB), sandblasted and acid etched (CA), or plasma sprayed with Ti particles (PS). The surfaces, from smoothest to roughest, were: PT, MA, CA, SB, and PS. MG63 cells were cultured to confluence on standard tissue culture polystyrene (plastic) or the Ti surfaces and then treated for 24 h with either 10-8M or 10-7M 1α,25-(OH)2D3 or vehicle (control). Cellular response was measured by assaying cell number, cell layer alkaline phosphatase specific-activity, and the production of osteocalcin, latent (L) TGFβ, and PGE2. Alkaline phosphatase activity was affected by surface roughness; as the surface became rougher, the cells showed a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Addition of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 to the cultures caused a dose-dependent stimulation of alkaline phosphatase activity that was synergistic with the effect caused by surface roughness alone. 1α,25-(OH)2D3 also caused a synergistic increase in osteocalcin production as well as local factor (LTGFβ and PGE2) production on the rougher CA, SB, and PS surfaces, but it had no effect on the production on smooth surfaces. The inhibitory effect of surface roughness on cell number was not affected by 1α,25-(OH)2D3 except on the SB surface. 1α,25-(OH)2D3 decreased cell number, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production, and had no effect on LTGFβ or PGE2 production by MG63 cells grown on tissue culture polystyrene. These data suggest that bone cell response to systemic hormones is modified by surface roughness and that surface roughness increases the responsiveness of MG63 cells to 1α,25-(OH)2D3. They also suggest that the endocrine system is actively involved in normal bone healing around implants. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 39, 77-85, 1998.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Divalent organochromium compounds, Cr(Lig)2, often become active catalysts for the polymerization of ethylene when deposited onto an oxide carrier such as silica or aluminophosphate. Hydroxyl groups are thought to react, releasing one ligand and binding the chromium to the surface. The behavior of the catalyst is then governed by the remaining ligand and the type of carrier. In this study two types of ligands were investigated: cyclopentadienyl and its open ring analog dimethylpentadienyl. This small difference in the type of ligand produces a fundamental difference in the polymerization mechanism. For comparison the mixed ligand chromocene, with one open and one closed ligand, was also synthesized and tested for polymerization.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-6258
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Contract electrification measurements were performed on polymeric particles containing toluenesulfonate salt. Two forms of the toluenesulfonate ion pair were studied, an ionomer, poly(styrene-co-N-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium toluenesulfonate) and a molecular salt, cetyltrimethylammonium toluenesulfonate. Both types of particles charge positive, and the ionomer produces the higher charge level. XPS analysis shows that the particles containing the ionomer have a surface salt composition that resembles the formulation composition, whereas the surface salt composition of the particles containing the molecular is significantly higher than in the formulation. The variation in the surface ion concentration is used to estimate a relative charging capacity of the salts. XPS analyses of the carriers that were used with both particles shows an S 2p signal appropriate for the toluenesulfonate anion. A mechanism for charging involving the transfer of the toluenesulfonate anion from polymer particles to the carrier is proposed.
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