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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (7,845)
  • Life and Medical Sciences  (2,848)
  • ASTROPHYSICS  (2,809)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Advantages of a hollow-fiber hemodialyzer have been well described. The goal of this program was to provide a working model of a noncellulosic hollow fiber artificial kidney with nonthrombogenic blood-contacting surfaces, low blood-priming volume and low pressure drop, a satisfactory rate of urea transport, and high rate of ultrafiltration of water. Also, the reliability and utility of these devices was to be demonstrated through clinical evaluation.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In this study, the intracellular concentrations of six elements (mmole/kg dry weight) were directly measured in the muscle fibers of pectoralis major muscles of eight week old, genetically dystrophic and normal chickens by the X-ray microanalysis technique. The extent of muscle degeneration was evaluated by morphometric measurements of muscle fiber diameter and other histological changes. A significant increase in the concentration of intracellular sodium and chlorine was evident in dystrophic muscles. The concentration of intracellular sodium was 127.0 ± 35.0 in the muscle fibers of dystrophic chicks compared to 65.7 ± 16.5 in normal controls. The concentration of chlorine was 90.5 ± 27.5 and 54.1 ± 5.5 in the muscle fibers of dystrophic and normal chicks respectively. The intracellular concentrations of potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, and sulfur remained unchanged in the dystrophic condition. Morphometric studies revealed that the dystrophic pectoralis muscles contain fewer but thicker fibers per unit area compared to normal pectoralis muscles. The importance of these findings are discussed in relation to the results of earlier investigations.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The micelle-forming monomers of sodium 6-acrylamidocaproate (Na 6-AAC), sodium 11-acrylamidoundecanoate (Na 11-AAU), sodium 11-(N-methylacrylamido) undecanoate (Na 11-MAAU), and sodium 11-(N-ethylacrylamido) undecanoate (Na 11-EAAU) have been synthesized and polymerized. Except poly(Na 6-AAC), the molecular weights of the other three poly(sodium acrylamidoalkanoate) s were over 106. They behave as strong anionic polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions. Their solution properties, such as viscosity, charge density, and radius of gyration, were investigated. The performance of these anionic polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids in water treatment were assessed by jar test. Poly(Na 6-AAC) and poly (Na 11-AAU) were superior to poly (Na 11-MAAU) and poly (Na 11-EAAU) in terms of flocs settling. All these four anionic polyelectrolytes tested in water treatment are as effective as a commercially available cationic polyamine organic coagulant (Hyperfloc CP 753).
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0323-7648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Die Copolymerisation von Acrylnitril und Acrylaten wurde in Dimethylformamid bei hohem Acrylnitril/Acrylat-Verhältnis im Temperaturbereich von -50 bis +10°C durch Lithiumalkoxide initiiert. Die Bedingungen zur direkten Präparation von Spinnlösungen der Copolymere wurden erarbeitet. Das Lösungsspinnen dieser Copolymere durch Orientierungsfällung ergab Fasern mit hohen Festigkeitswerten.
    Notes: The copolymerization of acrylonitrile with acrylates has been initiated by lithium alkoxides in dimethylformamide at a high acrylonitrile/acrylate ratio over the temperature range from -50 to 10°C. The conditions for a direct preparation of spinning solutions of the copolymers were determined. The solution-spinning of these copolymers by orientational precipitation yielded fibres exhibiting high strength properties.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0323-7648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Unter Hernziehung unterschiedlicher Präparationsmethoden wurde die Struktur verdünnter und konzentrierter (0,01 bis 9,8%) Lösungen des starkettigen Polyamidohydrazid (PAH) mittels Elektronenmikroskopie in zwei Lösungsmitteln (DMSO und DMAA) untersucht. Beginnend mit der Konzentration 0,01% erfolgt unterschiedliche Strukturierung in diesen Lösungsmitteln, die bezüglich des Polymers eine unterschiedliche Güte aufweisen. Die Ergebnisse wurden früheren Untersuchungen zur Rheologie konzentrierter PAH-Lösungen in den genannten Lösungsmitteln gegenüber gestellt.
    Notes: The structure of dilute and concentrated solutions (0.01-9.8%) of rigid-chain polyamidohydrazide (PAH) in dimethylsulphoxide and dimethylacetamide was investigated by electron microscopy using various preparation techniques. Starting with a 0.01% concentration, PAH shows two distinct types of structuration in the solvents. The results are compared with previously studied rheological properties of PAH in these solvents.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: millimeter-wave radiation ; BHK-21/C13 cells in monolayer culture ; scanning electron microscopy ; transmission electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Both thermal and athermal effects of millimeter-wave radiation on BHK-21/C13 cells were sought using scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with an in vitro technique that allows direct exposure of monolayer cultures to high average power densities. Culture dishes were irradiated by placing them on the open end of an E- or U-band wave guide. This technique exposes different regions of the cell monolayer lying along the longer axis of the wave guide aperture to varying power densities ranging from zero at each edge to twice the average power density at the center.Cell ultrastructure was unaffected by microwave radiation for 1 hour (41.8 or 74.0 GHz, average power densitites = 320 or 450 mW/cm2, respectively) with or without cooling by rapid recirculation of the culture medium. Temperature in recirculated cultures was held at 37.2 °C, and that in noncooled cultures never exceeded 42 °C during irradiation at either power density. In contrast, cell morphology was affected by microwave exposure whenever irradiation conditions were altered so that the temperature of the monolayer reached or exceeded 44.5 °C. Ultrastructural alterations included breakage of cell processes, progressive detachment of cells from the substrate, increased clumping of heterochromatin in the nuclei, and the appearance of large empty vesicles in the cytoplasm. Such morphological changes resulted from either application of higher average power densities or irradiation at the power densities described above at a higher ambient temperature (〉38.5°C).
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: High-resolution radio images of PKS1830 - 211 are obtained to study the possibility that the double structure is a gravitationally lensed object. The VLBI observations, taken from interferometric radiotelescope networks, reveal an elliptical ring that connects two bright spots of similar composition. Because the lens and the lensed object are closely aligned, and because of the structure of the two spots, the source is concluded to be a radio Einstein ring. The source is found to be close to the galactic plane, and the lens and the lensed object are extragalactic. The source is also found to be unusually bright, suggesting that it is aligned with a bright background source or amplified by some mechanism related to a source that is not so bright.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 352; 132-134
    Format: text
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0721-3115
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The explosive performance of ∊-CL-20 was found to be approximately 14% greater than HMX as determined by cylinder expansion and tantalum plate acceleration experiments. This makes it the most powerful explosive ever tested at small volume expansions of the detonation products. In general CL-20 is more sensitive than HMX. However, the sensitivity of CL-20 to one-dimensional shock loading was found to be similar to HMX.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Ca2+ activation mechanism of the longitudinal body wall muscles of Parastichopus californicus (sea cucumber) was studied using skinned muscle fiber bundles. Reversible phosphorylation of the myosin light chains correlated with Ca2+-activated tension and relaxation. Pretreatment of the skinned fibers with ATPγS and high Ca2+ (10-5M) resulted in irreversible thiophosphorylation of the myosin light chains and activation of a Ca2+ insensitive tension. In contrast, pretreatment with low Ca2+ (10-8M) and ATPγS results in no thiophosphorylation of the myosin light chains or irreversible activation of tension. These results are consistent with a Ca2+-sensitive myosin light chain kinase/phosphatase system being responsible for the activation of the muscle. Other agents known to have an effect upon the Ca2+-activated tension in skinned vertebrate smooth muscle fibers (trifluoperazine, catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and calmodulin) did not have an effect on myosin light chain phosphorylation or Ca2+-activated tension. These results suggest a different type of myosin light chain kinase than is found in vertebrate smooth muscle is responsible for the activation of parastichopus longitudinal body wall muscle.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Increasing evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in bone formation during remodeling. Using a recently cloned human leukemic cell line (FLG 29.1 cells) we demonstrate that these cells synthesize and secrete TGF-β1 and that exogenous or autocrine TGF-β1 can induce the same features of osteoclastic-like cells, exerting its effects through the binding to TGF-β specific receptors. Scatchard analysis of 125I-labeled TGF-β1 to FLG 29.1 cells revealed the presence of a single high affinity binding site with a Kd value of ∼25 pM and a binding capacity of ∼900 sites/cell. Affinity labeling experiments showed that FLG 29.1 cells express type I and type II TGF-β receptors. Stimulation of FLG 29.1 cells with low TGF-β1 doses reduced cell proliferation and increased cell adhesion and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP) activity. Pretreatment of FLG 29.1 cells with TGF-β1 caused a significant and dose-dependent response to calcitonin. Northern blot of total mRNA and analysis of the conditioned media (CM) showed that TGF-β1 was synthesized by FLG 29.1 cells. TPA treatment, which induces partial differentiation of these cells, markedly increased TGF-β1 mRNA expression and growth factor release. The majority of TGF-β1 secreted by TPA-treated cells was in its latent form. However, anti-TGF-β antibodies inhibited TGF-β1 and TPA-induced growth inhibition, calcitonin responsiveness, and TRAcP activity, suggesting that the TPA effect is mediated in part by autocrine TGF-β1 and indicating that the cells can activate and respond to the TGF-β that they secrete. These findings support a potential autocrine role for TGF-β1 in osteoclast differentiation. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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