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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (4)
  • 1990-1994  (4)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The crystal structure of a synthetic analogue of valinomycin, cyclo [-(D-Val-L-Hyi-L-Val-D-Hyi)2-] (octa-meso-valinomycin) (I) (C40H68N4O12 · 1.5 · C4H8O2, Mr = 937.01 + 88.10), has been determined. Crystals grown from dioxane are monoclinic, space group P21/a, with cell parameters a = 21.487(8), b = 16.836(5), c = 16.089(4) Å, β = 111.70(4), and Z = 4. The atomic coordinates for nonhydrogen atoms were refined in the anisotropic thermal motion approximation. H atom positions were included in the structure factor calculations at their geometrically expected positions. Values of the standard and weighted R factors after refinement are 0.11 and 0.13, respectively. The conformation of the depsipeptide crystallized from dioxane is different from that crystallized from chloroform (II). The molecule adopts a rectangular shape with two type IV β-turns containing a hydrogen bond and possesses pseudorotational symmetry. The side chains are located on the molecular periphery. The orientation of the carbonyl groups of the molecule is not conducive for efficient metal-ion coordination and in the observed conformation cannot behave as an ionophore.In the crystal the molecules form infinite chains parallel to the c axis, and are stabilized by two intermolecular hydrogen bonds that are shorter and have better geometry than the intramolecular hydrogen bonds.A φ/Ψ plot for dodecadepsipeptides with a (DLLD)3 sequence has well-defined areas for Val and Hyi residues only in cases when the crystals have been grown from nonpolar or medium-polar solvents. The Φ/Ψ plot for octadepsipeptides crystallized from chloroform (II) shows this behavior also. There also is a correlation between the polarity of the solvent from which crystals of octa-meso-valinomycin or valinomycin analogues with a (DLLD) sequence of configuration have been grown and the number of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds that are formed. The more polar the solvent the fewer the number of intramolecular hydrogen bonds.Empirical energy calculations on octa-meso-valinomycin indicate that for isolated molecules, the energy of the bracelet form (II) is 4.7 kcal/mole lower than that of the rectangular form (I).
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Direct x-ray analysis has been used to determine the crystal structure of [D-Hyi2, L-Hyi4]meso-valinomycin {cyclo[-D-Val-D-Hyi-L-Val-L-Hyi-(D-Val-L-Hyi-L-Val-D-Hyi)2-], C60H102N6O18}, which crystallized from acetone with two solvent molecules. The crystals are trigonal, space group P32, number of molecules per unit cell Z = 3, cell parameters a = b = 15.2085 (8) Å, c = 29.3250 (9) Å, γ = 120°. The standard (R)and weighted (Rw) reliability factors after refinement of the atomic coordinates for C, N, and O atoms in the anisotropic thermal motion approximation, allowing for isotropic H atom contributions, were 0.070 and 0.082, respectively. The molecule adopts a distorted bracelet structure which is stabilized by six N—H … O=C 4 → 1 type intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The side chains predominantly occupy external pseudoaxial positions relative to the cylindrical axis of the molecule. In contrast to meso-valinomycin, only four of the six Val carbonyl oxygen atoms are directed inwards to form a coordination centre for the molecule, and the carbonyl oxygen atoms of residues D-Val1 and L-Val3 are twisted outward and point away from the centre of the molecule. Although the analogue has a partially formed ion-binding center, it is inaccessible because the hydrophobic isopropyl groups of the D-Hyi2 and L-Hyi4 residues screen the molecular cavity on both sides.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The crystal structure of a synthetic analogue of valinomycin, cyclo[-(L-Val-L-Hyi-L-Val-D-Hyi)2-(D-Val-L-Hyi-L-Val-D-Hyi)-] ([L-Val1, L-Val5]meso-valinomycin), C60H102N6O18, has been determined. Crystals grown from petroleum ether are orthorhombic, space group P212121, with cell parameters a = 16.41(1), b = 18.76(1), c = 25.86(1) Å, and Z = 4. The atomic coordinates for nonhydrogen atoms, except those of terminal carbons on one side chain, were refined in the anisotropic thermal motion approximation. The coordinate parameters of the H atoms were incorporated into the structure factor calculations at geometrically expected positions. Values of the standard and weighted R factors after refinement are 0.074 and 0.083, respectively. The crystal structure of the molecule is asymmetric and adopts a conformation with four 4 → 1 type and one 6 → 1 type intramolecular hydrogen bonds between amide nitrogens and carbonyl oxygens. Valinomycin binds potassium more than 100 times strongly than the D,L Stereoisomeric analogue, as a result of a different spatial orientation of potentially interacting carbonyl groups.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The crystal structure of a synthetic depsipeptide ionophore hexadecaisoleucinomycin, cyclo[-(D-Ile-L-Lac-L-Ile-D-Hyi)4-] (C80H136N8O24), has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction techniques. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group P212121, number of molecules per unit cell z = 4, and cell parameters a = 11.195, b = 17.853, c = 54.835 Å. The values of the standard ( R) and weighted ( Rw ) discrepancy factors after refinement are 0.122 and 0.135, respectively. The structure is characterized by an elongated bracelet form with a twofold axis of pseudosymmetry. It is stabilized by eight intramolecular 4 → 1 hydrogen bonds between the amide C=O and N—H groups. The ester carbonyls are directed toward the inside of the molecule, their oxygen atoms forming an ellipsoidal internal cavity. The side chains are located on the molecular periphery. The conformational states of hexadecaisoleucinomycin in solution are discussed in the light of the data obtained.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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