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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-04-19
    Description: Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human genetic disease. However, for effective modelling of human genetic disease it is important to understand the extent to which zebrafish genes and gene structures are related to orthologous human genes. To examine this, we generated a high-quality sequence assembly of the zebrafish genome, made up of an overlapping set of completely sequenced large-insert clones that were ordered and oriented using a high-resolution high-density meiotic map. Detailed automatic and manual annotation provides evidence of more than 26,000 protein-coding genes, the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced. Comparison to the human reference genome shows that approximately 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. In addition, the high quality of this genome assembly provides a clearer understanding of key genomic features such as a unique repeat content, a scarcity of pseudogenes, an enrichment of zebrafish-specific genes on chromosome 4 and chromosomal regions that influence sex determination.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="" target="_blank"〉〈img src="" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Howe, Kerstin -- Clark, Matthew D -- Torroja, Carlos F -- Torrance, James -- Berthelot, Camille -- Muffato, Matthieu -- Collins, John E -- Humphray, Sean -- McLaren, Karen -- Matthews, Lucy -- McLaren, Stuart -- Sealy, Ian -- Caccamo, Mario -- Churcher, Carol -- Scott, Carol -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Koch, Romke -- Rauch, Gerd-Jorg -- White, Simon -- Chow, William -- Kilian, Britt -- Quintais, Leonor T -- Guerra-Assuncao, Jose A -- Zhou, Yi -- Gu, Yong -- Yen, Jennifer -- Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk -- Eyre, Tina -- Redmond, Seth -- Banerjee, Ruby -- Chi, Jianxiang -- Fu, Beiyuan -- Langley, Elizabeth -- Maguire, Sean F -- Laird, Gavin K -- Lloyd, David -- Kenyon, Emma -- Donaldson, Sarah -- Sehra, Harminder -- Almeida-King, Jeff -- Loveland, Jane -- Trevanion, Stephen -- Jones, Matt -- Quail, Mike -- Willey, Dave -- Hunt, Adrienne -- Burton, John -- Sims, Sarah -- McLay, Kirsten -- Plumb, Bob -- Davis, Joy -- Clee, Chris -- Oliver, Karen -- Clark, Richard -- Riddle, Clare -- Elliot, David -- Threadgold, Glen -- Harden, Glenn -- Ware, Darren -- Begum, Sharmin -- Mortimore, Beverley -- Kerry, Giselle -- Heath, Paul -- Phillimore, Benjamin -- Tracey, Alan -- Corby, Nicole -- Dunn, Matthew -- Johnson, Christopher -- Wood, Jonathan -- Clark, Susan -- Pelan, Sarah -- Griffiths, Guy -- Smith, Michelle -- Glithero, Rebecca -- Howden, Philip -- Barker, Nicholas -- Lloyd, Christine -- Stevens, Christopher -- Harley, Joanna -- Holt, Karen -- Panagiotidis, Georgios -- Lovell, Jamieson -- Beasley, Helen -- Henderson, Carl -- Gordon, Daria -- Auger, Katherine -- Wright, Deborah -- Collins, Joanna -- Raisen, Claire -- Dyer, Lauren -- Leung, Kenric -- Robertson, Lauren -- Ambridge, Kirsty -- Leongamornlert, Daniel -- McGuire, Sarah -- Gilderthorp, Ruth -- Griffiths, Coline -- Manthravadi, Deepa -- Nichol, Sarah -- Barker, Gary -- Whitehead, Siobhan -- Kay, Michael -- Brown, Jacqueline -- Murnane, Clare -- Gray, Emma -- Humphries, Matthew -- Sycamore, Neil -- Barker, Darren -- Saunders, David -- Wallis, Justene -- Babbage, Anne -- Hammond, Sian -- Mashreghi-Mohammadi, Maryam -- Barr, Lucy -- Martin, Sancha -- Wray, Paul -- Ellington, Andrew -- Matthews, Nicholas -- Ellwood, Matthew -- Woodmansey, Rebecca -- Clark, Graham -- Cooper, James D -- Tromans, Anthony -- Grafham, Darren -- Skuce, Carl -- Pandian, Richard -- Andrews, Robert -- Harrison, Elliot -- Kimberley, Andrew -- Garnett, Jane -- Fosker, Nigel -- Hall, Rebekah -- Garner, Patrick -- Kelly, Daniel -- Bird, Christine -- Palmer, Sophie -- Gehring, Ines -- Berger, Andrea -- Dooley, Christopher M -- Ersan-Urun, Zubeyde -- Eser, Cigdem -- Geiger, Horst -- Geisler, Maria -- Karotki, Lena -- Kirn, Anette -- Konantz, Judith -- Konantz, Martina -- Oberlander, Martina -- Rudolph-Geiger, Silke -- Teucke, Mathias -- Lanz, Christa -- Raddatz, Gunter -- Osoegawa, Kazutoyo -- Zhu, Baoli -- Rapp, Amanda -- Widaa, Sara -- Langford, Cordelia -- Yang, Fengtang -- Schuster, Stephan C -- Carter, Nigel P -- Harrow, Jennifer -- Ning, Zemin -- Herrero, Javier -- Searle, Steve M J -- Enright, Anton -- Geisler, Robert -- Plasterk, Ronald H A -- Lee, Charles -- Westerfield, Monte -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Zon, Leonard I -- Postlethwait, John H -- Nusslein-Volhard, Christiane -- Hubbard, Tim J P -- Roest Crollius, Hugues -- Rogers, Jane -- Stemple, Derek L -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1 R01 DK55377-01A1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 HD022486/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P01 HD22486/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM085318/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 OD011116/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 RR010715/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 RR020833/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 25;496(7446):498-503. doi: 10.1038/nature12111. Epub 2013 Apr 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes/genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Genes/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Male ; Meiosis/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Pseudogenes/genetics ; Reference Standards ; Sex Determination Processes/genetics ; Zebrafish/*genetics ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Wool copolymers with low polymer content (6-18%) have been prepared by radiation grafting techniques. Supercontraction, density, and formic acid vapor sorption measurements have been used to assess changes in the keratin structure produced by the grafting processes. Kinetic studies of the contractile forces developed in the first (reversible) stage of the supercontraction of wool in lithium bromide showed that grafting with poly(N-methylol acrylamide) or polyacrylonitrile has a “repairing” action which offsets changes in the wool structure produced by the small radiation dose (2 Mrad) used for the grafting process. By contrast, grafting with poly(vinyl acetate) had no repairing effect. The bonds formed by grafting of poly(N-methylol acrylamide) or polyacrylonitrile to keratin do not reduce swelling of the wool by formic acid, which is a measure of effective crosslink density. Grafting with poly(vinyl acetate) led to increased swelling by formic acid, indicating some disruption of the keratin structure during polymerization. It is suggested that the role of the grafted polymer is mainly to stabilize the hydrogen-bonded secondary network by interaction between the polypeptide and polymer chains.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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