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  • 1
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The copolymerization of β-pinene with styrene oxide (SO) and β-pinene with N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP) was investigated by using SnCl4 in dichloromethane diluent at low temperature. Monomer reactivity ratios were evaluated for both copolymers at -80°C; these are r1(SO) = 2.979 and r2(β-pinene) = 0.002 and r1(VP) = 0.096 and r2(β-pinene) = 0.294.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: tensile force ; electric field ; chain conformation ; birefringence ; scattering ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The effect of a tensile stress or an electric field on the conformation of a flexible polymer chain has been studied by combining theory with numerical simulation. In the presence of such external agents, the macromolecule experiences the action of two opposite forces at the chain ends. Two models are considered: the Gaussian bead-and-spring chain, and the freely jointed chain with segments of fixed length. From simulated Brownian trajectories we calculate steady-state properties of the polymer under the continuing action of the external forces. Thus, we compute the chain deformation and expansion, measured by the square radius of gyration, and analyze the influence of the external force on low-angle scattering of radiation. The effect of the link orientation in the optical anisotropy or birefringence is also analyzed. From existing theories, we predict very simple relationships between expansion, low-angle scattering, and birefringence, valid for Gaussian chains of any length, and for long freely jointed chains. The simulation results confirm those relationships. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys, 35: 689-697, 1997
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: This article is part of the general project laid out in Part I (ref. 9) and is concerned with obtaining information on primary (unthickened) crystals of polyethylene formed at low supercoolings. For this, a technique had to be devised by which crystallization could be speeded up so as to eliminate or at least reduce lamellar thickening. Indeed we were able to increase the rate of crystallization by an order of magnitude using a technique which we have called enhanced self-nucleation. Using this technique we find that when viewed under an optical microscope, spherulites crystallize uniformly over the field of view, and not, as is usual, by a radial growth process. Isothermal crystallization in bulk linear polyethylene has been studied by means of the enhanced self-nucleation technique as a function of crystallization time by using Raman LAM and melting points to assess variations of fold length Data have been obtained at very much shorter times than before. At short times, we find a constant fold length; at longer times the crystals thicken linearly with the logarithm of time. Values of the initial fold length for crystallization temperatures between 118 and 130°C are presented. Associated with the thickening at short times we find an induction time which increases with temperature.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The annealing behavior of low-density melt-crystallized polyethylene is discussed in terms of an unprecedented lamellar diffusion mechanism. For this purpose a combined small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study has been carried out. The presence of an initial double-lamellar population is directly evidenced by electron microscopy of freeze-cut and stained sections. The intercalation of thinner lamellae within the dominant wide-lamella population gives rise to an x-ray periodicity of 220 Å (structure I). The independent stacking of thinner lamellae within the material contributes to a second periodicity at 110 Å (structure II). During annealing at successively higher temperatures TA, the low-molecular-weight components from the thin lamellae progressively diffuse out of the double population, reinforcing the stacks of thinner lamellae. At the melting temperature of the thinner crystals a complete segregation of these lamellae takes place, and a new periodicity (structure III) corresponding to stacks of collapsed thick lamellae emerges. The periodicity of structure III increases further with TA. The thin lamellae of structure II can be extracted by a solvent, removing the corresponding SAXS peak and DSC maxima. The partial removal of thin lamellae from structure I by means of solvent extraction concurrently yields a decrease of the SAXS period. The present results suggest that molecular segregation of a low-molecular-weight fraction, contributing to the population of thinner lamellae, occurs during annealing.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The newly arisen possibility of crystallizing polyethylene at supercoolings much higher than were achievable previously has enabled the study of crystallization to be extended in several directions. Thus, fold length can be followed down to previously inaccessibly low crystallization temperatures, in the present case with sharp fractions, demonstrating the essential independence of the fold length of molecular weight. In this context the thinnest isolated crystal reported so far was obtained (ca. 6 nm). The faceted nature of crystals grown at such low temperatures and high rates has been noted, and is in line with new conceptions of polymer crystal growth. A previous observation of exceptionally high crystal growth rate (ca. 2 m/s) has been supplemented by measurements over a range of crystallization temperatures and the results found to be in good agreement with the predicated regime III behavior in the least theory of Hoffman. Observations of epitaxy on mica, while broadly in line with those by Lovinger, were revealing in several respects. Among these the observation that the substrate can influence the fold length when the chains are parallel to the substrate plane remains unexplained and puzzling.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: β-Pinene and epichlorohydrin (ECH) have been copolymerized cationically using BF3(C2H5)2O and SnCl4 as catalysts. Polymerizations were carried out at -80°C in methylenechloride. Monomer reactivity ratios were determined in both catalysts which were r1(ECH) = 1.06 ± 0.15 and r2 (β-pinene) = 0.32 ± 0.08 in BF3(C2H5)2O and r1(ECH) = 0.33 ± 0.11 and r2(β-pinene) = 2.03 ± 0.44 in SnCl4. Copolymers of different composition were soluble in acetone and insoluble in methanol. This characteristic was taken to indicate that the polymeric products were real copolymers and not a mixture of two homopolymers of epichlorohydrin and β-pinene.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: β-Pinene was polymerized with cationic initiators in reactions that were carried out to study the solvent, temperature, initiator, and monomer-to-solvent ratio. Polymers obtained under different conditions were characterized by intrinsic viscosity, softening point, and gel permeation chromatography.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three samples, A, B and C, of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared at 90, 60, and 0°C, respectively, to give them different isotactic content measured by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. A kinetic study of the nucleophilic substitution with sodium thiophenate, carried out for the three samples, showed that even at temperatures as high as 60°C a fraction of the units remain unreactive and that the extent of this fraction depends on the syndiotactic content of the polymer. This was also supported by a comparison of the behavior of samples B and C in substitution experiments at 5 and 60°C. In contrast the substitution experiments at -30°C demonstrated that, as suggested, a small fraction of extremely reactive units exists in PVC, the content of which is higher as the isotactic content of the polymer increases. In this connection, and even though a slight contribution of some defect structures cannot be ruled out, a 13C-NMR analysis of sample B after modification at 40°C to various degrees demonstrates that the reactivity of the isotactic triads is high in relation to the heterotactic. On the basis of the results obtained and the possible conformations in PVC the substitution mechanism is related to the occurrence of isotactic TT conformations. The results, as discussed in terms of the various ways in which isotactic TT conformations appear open new prospects in the field of PVC chemical modification and stabilization mechanisms.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Four fractions of PVC were obtained by successive extractions with appropriate solvents from PVC samples prepared in bulk at 60, 40, 0, and -50°C. Then they were carefully characterized, especially as far as stereoregularity is concerned. The samples were submitted to thermal degradation both at solid state and as solutions in dioctyl phthalate. The type of the polyene sequence distribution in degraded samples was determined by both the UV-visible spectroscopy and the number of chain scissions resulting from the ozonization reaction. The degradation rate was proved to rise together with the syndiotactic sequence content in agreement with results in Parts I-III, obtained only with degradation at solid state. On the other hand, The content of the long polyenes relative to that of the short polyenes in the degraded polymers was found to be higher, and the number of chain scissions through ozonization reaction lower, when the syndiotactic sequence content is high. These results enable us to conclude that the actual mechanism of the PVC thermal degradation depends markedly on the tacticity distribution regardless of whether the degradation occurs either at solid state or in solution.
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