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  • 1
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The effects of initial morphology and extrusion temperature on the orientational anisotropy and conformational changes on coextrusion drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) have been determined by Fourier-transform polarized infrared spectroscopy. The samples were drawn from both amorphous and semicrystalline (50%) PET at 50 and 90°C. A strong influence of coextrusion drawing temperature was observed for overall chain orientation evaluated from the dichroic ratio of the 795-cm-1 band for the samples prepared from the amorphous state: this dependence was less prominent in samples drawn from the semicrystalline state. Under the same drawing conditions, the dichroic ratio for the 973-cm-1 trans band for samples prepared from the amorphous state was higher than from the semicrystalline state. Furthermore, in all samples, the relative intensity of this band was almost proportional to the degree of crystallinity. In all samples, the gauche content, evaluated from the 896-cm-1 band, decreased with increasing draw ratio. However, the dichroic ratio of this band was near unity regardless of draw ratio, initial morphology, or extrusion temperature. From these results it is considered that all gauche units in the amorphous phase are almost isotropic in the extrusion-drawn samples with overall orientation arising largely from the crystalline chains possessing totally the trans conformation (973 cm-1) in its content. In order to evaluate the deformation mechanism of the coextrusion drawing method, the relationship between the bulk and film surface orientation is also reported.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and a copolyester of bisphenol-A with 50% terephthalate-50% isophthalate (PAr), before and after transesterification, have been studied by thermal and dynamic mechanical tests to determine crystallinity and phase behavior. Blends without transesterification, as prepared by solution precipitation, show a single Tg, indicating amorphous miscibility of PBT and PAr. A melting-point depression for PBT crystals is not observed; this means that PBT crystallizes excluding PAr and the entropy of melting is small. The highest fractional crystallinity for PBT is obtained at 20-35% of PAr. Transesterified blends were obtained by holding the physical blends at 250°C for up to 16 h. The transesterified systems show higher Tg's than the corresponding physical blends and also show a marked melting-point depression and lesser PBT crystallinity at the corresponding increased PAr content.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Films of uniaxially oriented poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), Mv = 81,000, have been drawn by solid-state coextrusion in the range 40-100°C surrounded by polyethylene. This is well below the PET melting temperature and in some cases below its glass transition temperature. Properties of the extrudates, such as degree of crystallinity, mechanical and thermal properties, were investigated as a function of coextrusion temperature and draw ratio (EDR ≤ 4.4). The results show that the percent crystallinity depends strongly on draw ratio, whereas its sensitivity to extrusion temperature is limited only to the highest draw ratio (4.4). On the other hand, Young's modulus was sensitive to both extrusion temperature and draw ratio, exhibiting a maximum at EDR = 4.4 and Text = 65°C. Above this temperature, moduli decrease apparently because of increased chain mobility, resulting in dissipation of chain orientation. Furthermore, changes in yield and tensile strength followed the changes in mechanical properties, suggesting that they are dominated by the same factors. The cold-crystallization temperature TCC also revealed information about the morphological changes occurring during the extrusion drawing. For samples of EDR = 4.4, TCC increased with extrusion temperature, suggesting again dissipation of orientation by thermal motions. On the other hand, TCC decreases with EDR, and a ΔTCC as high as 73°C was found. Conventional drawing of amorphous PET has been widely reported. To our knowledge this is the first time oriented PET has been prepared using the advantages of solid-state coextrusion.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The drawing of semicrystalline (33 and 50%) poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films has been studied by solid-state coextrusion. Because of its brittleness and opacity, isotropic and semicrystalline PET film is of little practical use. Early attempts to cold-draw crystalline films led to fracture in contrast to deformation of amorphous PET. However, we have succeeded in systematically preparing films with extrusion draw ratios ≤4.4 from semicrystalline PET. In many cases, the properties of the drawn extrudates, as a function of extrusion temperature Text and extrusion draw ratio EDR, were similar to those prepared from amorphous PET. However, some remarkable differences have also been found. In the case of coextrudates prepared from isotropic 50% crystalline PET, we found that the larger the deformation, the lower the apparent resulting crystallinity. In the extreme, a 34% reduction in crystallinity after deformation was observed. For the coextrudates drawn from initially 33% crystalline PET, slightly different behavior occurred. For Text ≤ 90°C, all extrudates showed crystallinities lower than the original isotropic film, with a minimum at EDR = 3; for Text ≥ 110°C, crystallinities were slightly greater than in the original film and increased with EDR. Qualitative measurements of heats of fusion were in agreement with density gradient results for PET crystallinity. In contrast is our previous finding that extrudates from initially amorphous PET always increase in crystallinity with EDR, because of stress-induced crystallization. The results now suggest that in the Text range investigated, the initial spherulitic structure is at least in part destroyed on drawing. In addition, the percent crystallinity is revealed to be dependent on Text, with lower values at lower temperatures. Mechanical tests show that the extrudates are similar or sometimes higher in tensile modulus when compared to amorphous PET drawn under the same conditions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The recently developed technique of solid-state coextrusion for ultradrawing semicrystalline thermoplastics has been applied in the preparation of self-reinforced high-density polyethylene extrudates. The extrudates consist of definite core and sheath phases composed of different molecular weights (Mw) in the range of 60,000-250,000 and different molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn = 3.0-20). Concentric billets of two different phases were prepared for extrusion by in serting a polyethylene rod within a tubular billet of a different high-density polyethylene followed by melting the two phases to obtain bonding between them. The billet was then split longitudinally to increase extrusion speed and extruded at 120°C, 0.23 GPa through a conical die of extrusion draw ratio 25. Extrudates of high tensile modulus (38 GPa) and strength (0.50 GPa) could be produced in a steady state process at a rate near 0.25 cm/min. The tensile properties of the extrudates from either the single or concentric billets increased with average molecular weight and were insensitive to the molecular weight distribution of the constituent phases. Thermal analysis indicated a high deformation efficiency for the sheath and core phases of the extrudates by the coextrusion technique.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Atactic polystyrene (aPS)/poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) and isotactic polystyrene (iPS)/PPO compatible blends of varied composition were subjected to solid-state coextrusion. The efficiency of drawing, orientation, and crystallinity development were studied as a function of composition and draw ratio. The efficiency of drawing, as measured by elastic recovery, is high for coextrusion at temperatures ≲40°C above the glass transition temperature of the particular blend. The maximum attainable draw ratio for the blends decreased with increasing PPO concentration; the highest blend draw ratio attained was 6.5 for 25 wt % PPO. The orientation on drawing, as measured by birefringence, increased with draw but decreased with increasing PPO component at the same draw ratio. When PPO was 〈50% in iPS/PPO blends, iPS crystallized on draw. The morphology of drawn blends was studied by electron microscopy and wide-angle x-ray scattering.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Billets of chain-extended polyethylene were prepared from Alathon 7050 (Mw 59,000, Mn 19,000) in an Instron capillary rheometer by crystallization at a constant pressure of 460 MPa, at a series of teimperatures from 198 to 221°C corresponding to varying degrees of undercooling. This gives chain-extended morphologies with a range of crystallinites and lamellar thicknesses. The billets were then solid-state extruded at 100°C through a conical die with 20° entrance angle up to an extrusion draw ration 23.4. Thermal behavior was studied with differential scanning calorimetry. The orientation function measured by wide-angle x-ray diffraction showed higher orientation function measured by wide-angle x-ray diffraction showed higher orientation at equivalent draw ratio when the initial billets were crystallized at lower temperatures. Drawing efficiency, defined as the ratio of molecular draw ratio (from shrinkage) to extrusion draw ratio correspondingly increases, reaching a maximum of 0.71 in our solid-state extrusion. These studies show that highly chain-extended polyethylene, i.e., with few chain entanglements, draws poorly. Drawability was improved by increasing chain entanglements by lowering the crystallization temperature. Electron micrographs of fracture surface replicas of extrudates revealed the coexistence of undeformed, tilted, partially drawn lamellae and fibrillar structure consistent with the cahange of morphologies in Peterlin's model of plastic deformation.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A series of uniaxially drawn films has been prepared from isotropic, amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by using solid-state coextrusion below its Tg. To evaluating the crystallization behavior of the coextrudates, the cold-crystallization temperature Tc, Crystallization rate constant k, and activation energy Ea have been studied as a function of extrusion draw temperature and draw ratio. The rapid crystallization of highly oriented amorphous PET in extrudates was followed by a temperature-programmed DSC technique. This avoids the marked precrystallization often found in samples brought to appropriate isothermal temperatures. With increasing extrusion draw ratio, Tc shifts to lower temperatures, the first-order crystallization rate constant k increases markedly (by two or three orders of magnitude) and Ea decreases markedly. For undrawn samples annealing at temperatures below or near Tg (50-70°C) does not lead to crystallization, but with increased annealing temperature both Tc and Ea decrease. In contrast, for extrusion-drawn PET, both Tc and Ea increase with draw temperature. All these features are consistent with our previous correlations with molecular draw ratio and birefringence.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Rheological studies were carried out on concentrated m-cresol solutions of two helical synthetic polypeptides; poly-γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG; molecular weight, 150,000) and poly-∊-carbobenzyloxy-L-lysine (PCBZL; molecular weight, 200,000). Steady shear measurements were made over a range of 0.01-16,000 sec-1 to obtain steady shear viscosity and first normal stress difference. Dynamic viscosity and dynamic storage modulus were measured both by oscillatory shear between cone and plate and also by an eccentric rotating disk device over frequency ranges of 0.1-400 and 0.1-63 rad/sec, respectively. The concentration ranges were such that both liquid crystalline and isotropic solutions were investigated. The previously reported observations of an apparent negative first normal stress difference within a defined range of shear rate for liquid crystalline solutions were confirmed for the PBLG and PCBZL solutions. At high shear rates the peaks in plots of steady shear viscosity against concentration were profoundly suppressed but peaks in first normal stress difference versus concentration were not. The observation of liquid crystalline order in PCBZL/m-cresol solutions at room temperature constitutes evidence that the inverse coil-helix transition temperature is lower in concentrated solutions than in dilute solutions. The critical concentration for formation of the liquid crystalline phase was higher for PCBZL than for PBLG, despite a higher axial ratio, due to helix flexibility.
    Additional Material: 30 Ill.
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