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  • Photosynthesis  (7)
  • Storage  (3)
  • Canopy conductance  (2)
  • Heterosis  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nicotiana (transformed with antisense DNA) ; Photosynthesis ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant (antisense)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Experiments were carried out to determine how decreased expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) affects photosynthetic metabolism in ambient growth conditions. In a series of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants containing progressively smaller amounts of Rubisco the rate of photosynthesis was measured under conditions similar to those in which the plants had been grown (310 μmol photons · m−2 · s−1, 350 μbar CO2, 22° C). (i) There was only a marginal inhibition (6%) of photosynthesis when Rubisco was decreased to about 60% of the amount in the wildtype. The reduced amount of Rubisco was compensated for by an increase in Rubisco activation (rising from 60 to 100%), with minor contributions from an increase of its substrates (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate and the internal CO2 concentration) and a decrease of its product (glycerate-3-phosphate). (ii) The decreased amount of Rubisco was accompanied by an increased ATP/ADP ratio that may be causally linked to the increased activation of Rubisco. An increase of highenergy-state chlorophyll fluorescence shows that thylakoid membrane energisation and high-energy-state-dependent energy dissipation at photosystem two had also increased. (iii) A further decrease of Rubisco (in the range of 50–20% of the wildtype level) resulted in a strong and proportional inhibition of CO2 assimilation. This was accompanied by a decrease of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity, coupling-factor 1 (CF1)-ATP-synthase protein, NADP-malate dehydrogenase protein, and chlorophyll. The chlorophyll a/b ratio did not change, and enolase and sucrose-phosphate synthase activity did not decrease. It is argued that other photosynthetic enzymes are also decreased once Rubisco decreases to the point at which it becomes strongly limiting for photosynthesis. (iv) It is proposed that the amount of Rubisco in the wildtype represents a balance between the demands of light, water and nitrogen utilisation. The wildtype overinvests about 15% more protein in Rubisco than is needed to avoid a strict Rubisco limitation of photosynthesis. However, this “excess” Rubisco allows the wildtype to operate with lower thylakoid energisation, and decreased high-energy-state-dependent energy dissipation, hence increasing light-use efficiency by about 6%. It also allows the wildtype to operate with a lower internal CO2 concentration in the leaf and a lower stomatal conductance at a given rate of photosynthesis, so that instantaneous water-use efficiency is marginally (8%) increased.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Light climate ; Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Photosynthesis ; Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant (tobacco, antisense DNA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants transformed with ‘antisense’ rbcS to decrease the expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) have been used to investigate the contribution of Rubisco to the control of photosynthesis in plants growing at different irradiances. Tobacco plants were grown in controlled-climate chambers under ambient CO2 at 20°C at 100, 300 and 750 μmol·m−2·s−1 irradiance, and at 28°C at 100, 300 and 1000 μmol·m−2·s−1 irradiance. (i) Measurement of photosynthesis under ambient conditions showed that the flux control coefficient of Rubisco (C infRubisco supA ) was very low (0.01–0.03) at low growth irradiance, and still fairly low (0.24–0.27) at higher irradiance. (ii) Short-term changes in the irradiance used to measure photosynthesis showed that C infRubisco supA increases as incident irradiance rises, (iii) When low-light (100 μmol·m−2·s−1)-grown plants are exposed to high (750–1000 μmol·m−2·s−1) irradiance, Rubisco is almost totally limiting for photosynthesis in wild types. However, when high-light-grown leaves (750–1000 μmol·m−2·s−1) are suddenly exposed to high and saturating irradiance (1500–2000 μmol·m−2·s−1), C infRubisco supA remained relatively low (0.23–0.33), showing that in saturating light Rubisco only exerts partial control over the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis in “sun” leaves; apparently additional factors are co-limiting photosynthetic performance, (iv) Growth of plants at high irradiance led to a small decrease in the percentage of total protein found in the insoluble (thylakoid fraction), and a decrease of chlorophyll, relative to protein or structural leaf dry weight. As a consequence of this change, high-irradiance-grown leaves illuminated at growth irradiance avoided an inbalance between the “light” reactions and Rubisco; this was shown by the low value of C infRubisco supA (see above) and by measurements showing that non-photochemical quenching was low, photochemical quenching high, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation was low at the growth irradiance. In contrast, when a leaf adapted to low irradiance was illuminated at a higher irradiance, Rubisco exerted more control, non-photochemical quenching was higher, photochemical quenching was lower, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation was higher than in a leaf which had grown at that irradiance. We conclude that changes in leaf composition allow the leaf to avoid a one-sided limitation by Rubisco and, hence, overexcitation and overreduction of the thylakoids in high-irradiance growth conditions, (v) ‘Antisense’ plants with less Rubisco contained a higher content of insoluble (thylakoid) protein and chlorophyll, compared to total protein or structural leaf dry weight. They also showed a higher rate of photosynthesis than the wild type, when measured at an irradiance below that at which the plant had grown. We propose that N-allocation in low light is not optimal in tobacco and that genetic manipulation to decrease Rubisco may, in some circumstances, increase photosynthetic performance in low light.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Biomass allocation ; Nicotiana ; Nitrogen nutrition ; Photosynthesis ; Relative growth rate ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) ; Transgenic plant (tobacco antisense DNA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants and transgenic tobacco transformed with antisense rbcS to decrease expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) were grown at 300 mol-m−2 · s−1 irradiance and 20° C at either 0.1, 0.7 or 5 mM NH4NO3. In high nitrogen (N), growth was reduced in parallel with the inhibition of photosynthesis when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation. In limiting N, photosynthesis was reduced strongly when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation, but growth was hardly affected. At all N levels, decreased expression of Rubisco led to a decrease in the amount of starch accumulated in the leaves. There was a large increase of the specific leaf area (SLA; leaf area maintained per unit dry weight in the leaf) in plants with decreased Rubisco. Increased SLA was associated with an increased inorganic and a decreased carbon contribution to leaf structural dry weight. The increased SLA represents a more efficient investment of photosynthate with respect to maximisation of leaf area and light interception, and partly compensates for the decreased rate of photosynthesis in plants with decreased expression of Rubisco. The changes of starch content and SLA were particularly large in limiting N, when growth rate was effectively independent of the rate of photosynthesis. Increased N availability led to a large increase of the shoot/ root ratio, but only a small increase in SLA. It is argued that N availability and the availability of photosynthate both regulate storage and allocation of biomass to optimize resource utilization, but achieve this via different mechanisms.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 225-231 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Growth ; Branching pattern ; Needle density
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Among 33-year-old forest trees ofLarix decidua, L. leptolepis andL. decidua x leptolepis, the hybrid possessed an above-ground biomass which was three times greater, although all larches displayed similar relative distributions of biomass. At a “relative growth rate” slightly lower than in the parent species, hybrid larch achieved twice the annual carbon gain, increment in stem length and above-ground production, and its foliage-related stem growth was higher than in European (L. decidua) but similar to Japanese (L. leptolepis) larch. A similar “relative growth efficiency” and foliage-related total above-ground production in all trees did reflect the similarity of photosynthetic capacity of the hybrid found at the leaf level. While the lengths of lateral twigs on hybrid branches were intermediate between the European larch with short, and the Japanese larch with large, twigs the hybrid possessed the longest branches with the highest needle biomass. This resulted in a crown structure of the hybrid crown similar to the Japanese larch together with a high needle density on branches as in the European larch. In total, the foliage biomass per crown length was about 30% higher in hybrid larch than in both of the parent species. Thus, the high carbon input for the stem heterosis was based on a “complementation principle” of advantageous parent features at the crown level. Similar slopes of foliage against sapwood area of stem and branches did not indicate a special need for a thick hybrid stem with respect to water transport.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 219-224 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Photosynthesis ; Stomatal conductance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Individual 33-year-old forest trees of the deciduous conifer speciesLarix decidua, Larix leptolepis andLarix decidua x leptolepis were investigated with respect to the phenomenon of stem heterosis in hybrid larch; the first part of this study compares the gas exchange responses of leaves. CO2 assimilation per leaf area was similar in the three larch species, but on a dry weight basis the nitrogen content of the needles and maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Amax) were slightly higher in the hybrid. This increase was accompanied by a higher protein content than in the Japanese and a lower specific leaf weight than in the European larch. All three species were similar in terms of the photosynthetic “nitrogen use” and stomatal conductance atA max. The similar slopes of the area-related steady-state responses of gas exchange against irradiance, evaporative demand and internal CO2 concentration led to similar rates of CO2 uptake under ambient conditions. The natural combinations and variability of the environmental factors also reduced the small dry weight-related difference inA max between hybrid larch and the parent species, such that all trees achieved similar daily carbon gains. Thus, the ecological significance of small interspecific differences in the metabolism of leaves has very little effect under the natural habitat conditions of a temperate climate. The second part of the study will investigate the effect of growth characteristics on the heterosis of hybrid larch.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Storage ; Accumulation ; Reserve formation ; Storage structure ; Biennial plants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Four biennial species (Arctium tomentosum, Cirsium vulgare, Dipsacus sylvester and Daucus carota) which originate from habitats of different nutrient availability were investigated in a 2-year experiment in a twofactorial structured block design varying light (natural daylight versus shading) and fertilizer addition. The experiment was designed to study storage as reserve formation (competing with growth) or as accumulation (see Chapin et al. 1990). We show that (i) the previous definitions of storage excluded an important process, namely the formation of storage tissue. Depending on species, storage tissue and the filling process can be either a process of reserve formation, or a process of accumulation. (ii) In species representing low-resource habitats, the formation of a storage structure competes with other growth processes. Growth of storage tissue and filling with storage products is an accumulation process only in the high-resource plant Arctium tomentosum. We interpret the structural growth of low-resource plants in terms of the evolutionary history of these species, which have closely related woody species in the Mediterranean area. (iii) The use of storage products for early leaf growth determines the biomass development in the second season and the competitive ability of this species during growth with perennial species. (iv) The high-resource plant Arctium has higher biomass development under all conditions, i.e. plants of low-resource habitats are not superior under low-resource conditions. The main difference between high- and low-resource plants is that low-resource plants initiate flowering at a lower total plant internal pool size of available resources.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Evaporation ; Aerodynamic conductance ; Canopy conductance ; Humidity response ; Soil water
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Canopy-scale evaporation rate (E) and derived surface and aerodynamic conductances for the transfer of water vapour (gs and ga, respectively) are reviewed for coniferous forests and grasslands. Despite the extremes of canopy structure, the two vegetation types have similar maximum hourly evaporation rates (E max) and maximum surface conductances (gsmax) (medians = 0.46 mm h-1 and 22 mm s-1). However, on a daily basis, median E max of coniferous forest (4.0 mm d-1) is significantly lower than that of grassland (4.6 mm d-1). Additionally, a representative value of ga for coniferous forest (200 mm s-1) is an order of magnitude more than the corresponding value for grassland (25 mm s-1). The proportional sensitivity of E, calculated by the Penman-Monteith equation, to changes in gs is 〉0.7 for coniferous forest, but as low as 0.3 for grassland. The proportional sensitivity of E to changes in ga is generally ±0.15 or less. Boundary-line relationships between gs and light and air saturation deficit (D) vary considerably. Attainment of gsmax occurs at a much lower irradiance for coniferous forest than for grassland (15 versus about 45% of full sunlight). Relationships between gs and D measured above the canopy appear to be fairly uniform for coniferous forest, but are variable for grassland. More uniform relationships may be found for surfaces with relatively small ga, like grassland, by using D at the evaporating surface (D0) as the independent variable rather than D at a reference point above the surface. An analytical expression is given for determining D0 from measurable quantities. Evaporation rate also depends on the availability of water in the root zone. Below a critical value of soil water storage, the ratio of evaporation rate to the available energy tends to decrease sharply and linearly with decreasing soil water content. At the lowest value of soil water content, this ratio declines by up to a factor of 4 from the non-soil-water-limiting plateau. Knowledge about functional rooting depth of different plant species remains rather limited. Ignorance of this important variable makes it generally difficult to obtain accurate estimates of seasonal evaporation from terrestrial ecosystems.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Carbohydrate ; Growth ; Nitrogen ; Phaseolus lunatus ; Storage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Growth, photosynthesis, and storage of nitrogen (N) and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) of a perennial wild type and an annual cultivar of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) were examined at different light intensities and N supplies. Relative growth rate and photosynthesis increased with light and N availability. N limitation enhanced biomass allocation into root rather than into shoot, while light limitation enhanced growth of leaf area. The TNC concentrations increased with light intensity and thus with photosynthesis, while the concentrations of organic N and nitrate decreased. Increasing N supply had the opposite effect. Therefore, TNC and organic N concentrations were negatively correlated (r=−0.90). Pool size of N or TNC increased with N and light availability when either resource was non-limiting, but increased little or remained constant when either resource was limiting. Storage reached a minimum when both resources were supplied at an equal rate.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Biennial plants ; Carbon partitioning ; Nitrogen partitioning ; Storage ; Harvest index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Growth and nitrogen partitioning were investigated in the biennial monocarp Arctium tomentosum in the field, in plants growing at natural light conditions, in plants in which approximately half the leaf area was removed and in plants growing under 20% of incident irradiation. Growth quantities were derived from splined cubic polynomial exponential functions fitted to dry matter, leaf area and nitrogen data. Main emphasis was made to understanding of the significance of carbohydrate and nitrogen storage of a large tuber during a 2-years' life cycle, especially the effect of storage on biomass and seed yield in the second season. Biomass partitioning favours growth of leaves in the first year rosette stage. Roots store carbohydrates at a constant rate and increase storage of carbohydrates and nitrogen when the leaves decay at the end of the first season. In the second season the reallocation of carbohydrates from storage is relatively small, but reallocation of nitrogen is very large. Carbohydrate storage just primes the growth of the first leaves in the early growing season, nitrogen storage contributes 20% to the total nitrogen requirement during the 2nd season. The efficiency of carbohydrate storage for conversion into new biomass is about 40%. Nitrogen is reallocated 3 times in the second year, namely from the tuber to rosette leaves and further to flower stem leaves and eventually into seeds. The harvest index for nitrogen is 0.73, whereas for biomass it is only 0.19.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Forest decline ; Stomatal response ; Photosynthesis ; Mg-deficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary CO2 assimilation rate (A) and leaf conductance (g) were measured in the field on intact branches of 35-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees, in five plots each in a healthy and a declining stand. The declining site included trees with yellow needles. In order to separate atmospheric effects on gas exchange from effects of nutrient deficiency, direct effects of atmospheric pollutants were studied on green needles of different age classes in plots of trees at different stages of visible decline. The effects of nutrient deficiency on gas exchange were studied on a different group of trees showing needles of various degrees of yellowing. CO2 assimilation of green needles at the same leaf conductance fell somewhat only when needles had reached 5 years of age, the oldest age examined in this study. Leaf conductance decreased with increasing needle age, but green needles in the declining stand had leaf conductances similar to those of needles in the healthy stand. Stomata of needles with different magnesium concentrations responded to light and air humidity in all age classes. Thus, as long as needles were green, no dese effect was detectable up to 5 years of exposure to atmospheric emissions. Since all needles, green and yellow, were exposed to the same pollution levels, differences in gas exchange between green and yellow needles could not be explained simply in terms of long-term direct effects of air pollution. Needle magnesium contents were correlated with needle yellowing. Neither needle color change nor the magnesium concentration were related to g, but CO2 uptake at ambient CO2 levels declined with lower magnesium concentration and greater degrees of needle yellowing.
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