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  • Photosynthesis  (3)
  • Nitrogen  (2)
  • Storage
  • Springer  (6)
  • 1985-1989  (6)
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  • Springer  (6)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 219-224 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Photosynthesis ; Stomatal conductance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Individual 33-year-old forest trees of the deciduous conifer speciesLarix decidua, Larix leptolepis andLarix decidua x leptolepis were investigated with respect to the phenomenon of stem heterosis in hybrid larch; the first part of this study compares the gas exchange responses of leaves. CO2 assimilation per leaf area was similar in the three larch species, but on a dry weight basis the nitrogen content of the needles and maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Amax) were slightly higher in the hybrid. This increase was accompanied by a higher protein content than in the Japanese and a lower specific leaf weight than in the European larch. All three species were similar in terms of the photosynthetic “nitrogen use” and stomatal conductance atA max. The similar slopes of the area-related steady-state responses of gas exchange against irradiance, evaporative demand and internal CO2 concentration led to similar rates of CO2 uptake under ambient conditions. The natural combinations and variability of the environmental factors also reduced the small dry weight-related difference inA max between hybrid larch and the parent species, such that all trees achieved similar daily carbon gains. Thus, the ecological significance of small interspecific differences in the metabolism of leaves has very little effect under the natural habitat conditions of a temperate climate. The second part of the study will investigate the effect of growth characteristics on the heterosis of hybrid larch.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Biennial plants ; Carbon partitioning ; Nitrogen partitioning ; Storage ; Harvest index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Growth and nitrogen partitioning were investigated in the biennial monocarp Arctium tomentosum in the field, in plants growing at natural light conditions, in plants in which approximately half the leaf area was removed and in plants growing under 20% of incident irradiation. Growth quantities were derived from splined cubic polynomial exponential functions fitted to dry matter, leaf area and nitrogen data. Main emphasis was made to understanding of the significance of carbohydrate and nitrogen storage of a large tuber during a 2-years' life cycle, especially the effect of storage on biomass and seed yield in the second season. Biomass partitioning favours growth of leaves in the first year rosette stage. Roots store carbohydrates at a constant rate and increase storage of carbohydrates and nitrogen when the leaves decay at the end of the first season. In the second season the reallocation of carbohydrates from storage is relatively small, but reallocation of nitrogen is very large. Carbohydrate storage just primes the growth of the first leaves in the early growing season, nitrogen storage contributes 20% to the total nitrogen requirement during the 2nd season. The efficiency of carbohydrate storage for conversion into new biomass is about 40%. Nitrogen is reallocated 3 times in the second year, namely from the tuber to rosette leaves and further to flower stem leaves and eventually into seeds. The harvest index for nitrogen is 0.73, whereas for biomass it is only 0.19.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline, Spruce (Picea abies) ; Nitrogen ; Magnesium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A declining Picea abies (L.) Karst. stand produced as much foliage and branches as a healthy stand but less stemwood at a similar leaf area index and climate. Nutrient analyses revealed that most biomass components at the declining site had lower concentrations of calcium and magnesium, but similar nitrogen and potassium (except for lower potassium in younger needles) and higher phosphorus, manganese and aluminum than the respective components at the healthy site. Comparison of these data with the results from studies on the nutrition and growth of P. abies seedlings (Ingestad 1959) led to the conclusion that the healthy stand is in a balanced nutritional state, while trees at the declining stand have only 56% of the foliar magnesium concentration required to permit growth at a rate which could be achieved at their nitrogen status. It appears that acidic deposition, which involves an input of nitrogen and a leaching of cations from the soil, causes an imbalance in the availability of nitrogen and magnesium. Growth is eventually reduced as magnesium becomes limiting.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Forest decline ; Stomatal response ; Photosynthesis ; Mg-deficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary CO2 assimilation rate (A) and leaf conductance (g) were measured in the field on intact branches of 35-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees, in five plots each in a healthy and a declining stand. The declining site included trees with yellow needles. In order to separate atmospheric effects on gas exchange from effects of nutrient deficiency, direct effects of atmospheric pollutants were studied on green needles of different age classes in plots of trees at different stages of visible decline. The effects of nutrient deficiency on gas exchange were studied on a different group of trees showing needles of various degrees of yellowing. CO2 assimilation of green needles at the same leaf conductance fell somewhat only when needles had reached 5 years of age, the oldest age examined in this study. Leaf conductance decreased with increasing needle age, but green needles in the declining stand had leaf conductances similar to those of needles in the healthy stand. Stomata of needles with different magnesium concentrations responded to light and air humidity in all age classes. Thus, as long as needles were green, no dese effect was detectable up to 5 years of exposure to atmospheric emissions. Since all needles, green and yellow, were exposed to the same pollution levels, differences in gas exchange between green and yellow needles could not be explained simply in terms of long-term direct effects of air pollution. Needle magnesium contents were correlated with needle yellowing. Neither needle color change nor the magnesium concentration were related to g, but CO2 uptake at ambient CO2 levels declined with lower magnesium concentration and greater degrees of needle yellowing.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Mimicry ; Nitrogen ; Herbivory ; Mistletoe ; Australia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Leaves from many misletoe species in Australia strongly resemble those of their hosts. This cryptic mimicry has been hypothesized to be a means of reducing the likelihood of mistletoe herbivory by vertebrates. Leaf Kjeldahl nitrogen contents (a measure of reduced nitrogen and thus amines, amino acids and protein levels) of mistletoes and their hosts were measured on 48 mimetic and nonmimetic host-parasite pairs to evaluate hypotheses concerning the significance of crysis versus noncrypsis. The hypothesis that mistletoes mimicking host leaves should have higher leaf nitrogen levels than their hosts is supported; they may be gaining a selective advantage through crypsis (reduced herbivory). The second hypothesis that mistletoes which do not mimic their hosts should have lower leaf nitrogen levels than their hosts is also supported; they may be gaining a selective advantage through noncrypsis (reduced herbivory resulting from visual advertisement of their reduced nutritional status).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Photosynthesis ; Specific leaf weight ; Carbon balance ; Larix ; Picea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Canopy photosynthesis is difficult to measure directly or to predict with complex models demanding knowledge of seasonal variation in environmental and physiological properties of the canopy. Trees in particular offer a challenge with their large, aerodynamically rough and seasonally-changing canopy properties. In this paper we assess the possibility of using specific leaf weight to predict seasonal and annual net photosynthetic rate in deciduous (Larix sp.) and evergreen (Picea abies) conifers. Annual photosynthetic rate and specific leaf weight of different positions of the crown in both species were highly correlated (r 2=0.930). Annual carbon uptake by different segments in a mature P. abies crown was closely related to leaf biomass. The relationship was improved by adjusting the leaf biomass of each segment in regard to its specific leaf weight relative to the maximum found in the canopy. The adjustment accounted for associated differences in photosynthetic activity. This combined structural index (leaf biomassxrelative specific leaf weight) could, when calibrated, predict the total annual carbon uptake by different parts of the crown. If direct measurements of photosynthesis are not available, the combined structural index may still serve as a comparative estimator of annual carbon uptake.
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