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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 38 (2008): 2014-2037, doi:10.1175/2008JPO3895.1.
    Description: An inverse method is used to evaluate the information contained in sediment data for the Atlantic basin during the Last Glacial Maximum (defined here as the time interval 18–21 kyr before present). The data being considered are an updated compilation of the isotopic ratios 18O/16O (δ18O) and 13C/12C (δ13C) of fossil shells of benthic foraminifera (bottom-dwelling organisms). First, an estimate of the abyssal circulation in the modern Atlantic is obtained, which is consistent with (i) climatologies of temperature and salinity of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, (ii) observational estimates of volume transport at specific locations, and (iii) the statements of a finite-difference geostrophic model. Second, estimates of water properties (δ18O of equilibrium calcite or δ18Oc and δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon or δ13CDIC) derived from sediment data are combined with this circulation estimate to test their consistency with the modern flow. It is found that more than approximately 80% of water property estimates (δ18Oc or δ13CDIC) are compatible with the modern flow given their uncertainties. The consistency of glacial δ13CDIC estimates with the modern flow could be rejected after two assumptions are made: (i) the uncertainty in these estimates is ±0.1‰ (this uncertainty includes errors in sediment core chronology and oceanic representativity of benthic δ13C, which alone appears better than this value on average); and (ii) δ13CDIC in the glacial deep Atlantic was dominated by a balance between water advection and organic C remineralization. Measurements of δ13C on benthic foraminifera are clearly useful, but the current uncertainties in the distribution and budget of δ13CDIC in the glacial Atlantic must be reduced to increase the power of the test.
    Description: Support for this work comes from the U.S. National Science Foundation.
    Keywords: Abyssal circulation ; Atlantic Ocean ; Paleoclimate
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-17
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 31 (2018): 8059-8079, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0769.1.
    Description: We use the method of least squares with Lagrange multipliers to fit an ocean general circulation model to the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface (MARGO) estimate of near sea surface temperature (NSST) at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; circa 23–19 thousand years ago). Compared to a modern simulation, the resulting global, last-glacial ocean state estimate, which fits the MARGO data within uncertainties in a free-running coupled ocean–sea ice simulation, has global-mean NSSTs that are 2°C lower and greater sea ice extent in all seasons in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Increased brine rejection by sea ice formation in the Southern Ocean contributes to a stronger abyssal stratification set principally by salinity, qualitatively consistent with pore fluid measurements. The upper cell of the glacial Atlantic overturning circulation is deeper and stronger. Dye release experiments show similar distributions of Southern Ocean source waters in the glacial and modern western Atlantic, suggesting that LGM NSST data do not require a major reorganization of abyssal water masses. Outstanding challenges in reconstructing LGM ocean conditions include reducing effects from model biases and finding computationally efficient ways to incorporate abyssal tracers in global circulation inversions. Progress will be aided by the development of coupled ocean–atmosphere–ice inverse models, by improving high-latitude model processes that connect the upper and abyssal oceans, and by the collection of additional paleoclimate observations.
    Description: DEA was supported by a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and NSF Grant OCE-1060735. OM acknowledges support from the NSF. GF was supported by NASA Award 1553749 and Simons Foundation Award 549931.
    Keywords: Ocean ; Abyssal circulation ; Sea surface temperature ; Paleoclimate ; Inverse methods ; Ocean models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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