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  • 1
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    Bonn: University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: We study a policy response to an increase in post-merger social stress. If a merger of groups of people is viewed as a revision of their social space, then the merger alters people's comparators and increases social stress: the social stress of a merged population is greater than the sum of the levels of social stress of the constituent populations when apart. We use social stress as a proxy measure for looming social protest. As a response to the post-merger increase in social stress, we consider a policy aimed at reversing the negative effect of the merger by bringing the social stress of the merged population back to the sum of the pre-merger levels of social stress of the constituent populations when apart. We present, in the form of an algorithm, a cost-effective policy response which is publicly financed and does not reduce the incomes of the members of the merged population. We then compare the financial cost of implementing such a policy when the merger involves more or fewer groups. We show that the cost may fall as the number of merging groups rises.
    Keywords: D04 ; D63 ; F55 ; H53 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; merger of populations ; revision of social space ; aggregate relative deprivation ; social stress ; a cost-effective policy response
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Bonn: University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Recent research shows that the merger of economies increases aggregate stress. This paper shows that there is no income distribution policy which will ensure that the wellbeing of the individuals belonging to merging economies does not fall below their pre-merger level.
    Keywords: D04 ; D63 ; F55 ; H53 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; merger of populations ; revision of social space ; aggregate relative deprivation ; Societal stress ; policy response
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Bonn: University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: This paper looks at the integration of regions and nations through the prism of the merger of populations (societies). The paper employs a particular index of social stress. Stylized examples of the merging of two populations suggest that with integration, the social stress index will increase. The examples form the basis for the development of new formulas for calculating the social stress of an integrated population as a function of the levels of social stress of the constituent populations when apart. The formulas reveal that the social stress of an integrated population is higher than the sum of the levels of social stress of the constituent populations when apart. This raises the distinct possibility that the merging of populations may be a social liability: integration may fail to give the populace a sense of improved wellbeing.
    Keywords: D02 ; D63 ; F55 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; Integration of regions and nations ; Merging populations ; Social welfare
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Bonn: University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: I study the integration of regions in the form of a merger of populations, which I interpret as a revision of people's social space and their comparison set; I illustrate the way in which a merger can aggravate social distress; and I consider policy responses. Specifically, I view the merger of populations as a merger of income vectors; I measure social distress by aggregate relative deprivation; I demonstrate that a merger increases aggregate relative deprivation; and I show that a social planner is able to reverse this increase by means of least-cost, post-merger increases in individual incomes, but is unable to counter it by relying exclusively on a self-contained income redistribution that retains individual levels of wellbeing at their pre-merger levels.
    Keywords: D04 ; D63 ; F55 ; H53 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; Integration of regions ; Merger of populations ; Revision of social space ; Aggregate relative deprivation ; Social distress ; Policy responses ; Politische Integration ; Bevölkerung ; Soziale Integration ; Einkommensverteilung ; Sozialer Konflikt ; Konsuminterdependenz ; Einkommenspolitik ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Bonn: University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: This paper considers the integration of economies as a merger of populations. The premise is that the merger of groups of people alters their social landscape and their comparators. The paper identifies the effect of the merger on aggregate distress. A merger is shown to increase aggregate distress, measured as total relative deprivation: the social distress of a merged population is greater than the sum of the social distress of the constituent populations when apart. Physiological evidence from neighboring disciplines points to an increase in societal stress upon merger.
    Keywords: D04 ; D63 ; F55 ; H53 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; Merger of populations ; Revision of social space ; Aggregate relative deprivation ; Societal distress
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Bonn: University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: In this paper I study policy responses to an increase in post-merger distress. I consider the integration of regions and nations as a merger of populations which I view as a revision of social space, and I identify the effect of the merger on aggregate distress. The paper is based on the premise that the merger of groups of people alters their social landscape and their comparators. Employing a specific measure of social distress that is based on the sensing of relative deprivation, a merger increases aggregate distress: the social distress of a merged population is greater than the sum of the social distress of the constituent populations when apart. In response, policies are enacted to ensure that aggregate distress and/or that of individuals does not rise after a merger. I consider two publicly-financed, cost-effective policies designed so as not to reduce individuals' incomes: a policy that reverses the negative effect of the merger on the aggregate level of relative deprivation, bringing it back to the sum of the pre-merger levels of aggregate relative deprivation of the two populations when apart; and a policy that is aimed at retaining the relative deprivation of each individual at most at its pre-merger level. These two policies are developed as algorithms. Numerical examples illustrate the application of the algorithms.
    Keywords: D04 ; D63 ; F55 ; H53 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; Merger of populations ; Revision of social space ; Aggregate relative deprivation ; Societal distress ; Policy responses ; Integration ; Wirtschaftsintegration ; Bevölkerung ; Soziale Beziehungen ; Sozialer Konflikt ; Verteilungspolitik ; Algorithmus ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1057-9257
    Keywords: gallium nitride ; nanocrystallites ; detonation ; gallium azide ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: High quality nanoscale, phase-pure hexagonal gallium nitride (GaN) crystallites have been synthesized by the thermal induced detonation of molecular precursors of the type (R3N)Ga(N3)3 (R=CH3, C2H5, etc.). The method allows the control of the particle size regime from 2 to about 1000 nm. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld simulations revealed an anisotropic platelet-like shape of the particles. The obtained GaN material was as well characterized by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, photoluminescence spectroscopy, SEM, IR, RAMAN, thermal gas effusion/mass spectrometry, thermal analysis, elemental analysis. Gas absorption measurements (BET method) showed a specific surface area of about 90 m2 · g-1. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Es wurden die Verschiebungen untersucht, die durch Tris-(dipivaloylmethano)-europium und Tris-(dipivaloylmethano)-praseodym im NMR- Spektrum versehiedener Derivate substituierter Phenole hervorgerufen werden. Der Zweck dieser Arbeiten war, die Möglichkeiten zu erfassen, die diese Verschiebereagenzien als Hilfsmittel in der NMR-Analyse von Phenolharzen bieten, und Information über Verschiebungen bei Molekülen zu gewinnen, die mehr als eine Koordinationsposition besitzen.
    Notes: An investigation into the shifts induced in the NMR spectra of some derivatives of substituted phenols by tris(dipivalomethanato)europium and tris(dipivalomethanato)praseodymium is reported. The phenol derivatives were studied to ascertain the possible utility of the shift reagents as an aid in the analysis of phenolformaldehyde resins by NMR spectroscopy, and to gain information on induced shifts with molecules having more than one possible co-ordination site.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Es wurde eine Voruntersuchung des Einflusses unternommen, den die Verschiebereagenzien Tris-(dipivaloylmethano)-europium uncl Tris-(dipivaloylmethano)-pra-seodym auf das NMR-Spektrum des Diglyzidyläthers des Bisphenol A ausüben. Es ergab sich, daß die Signale der am Epoxidring anliegenden Protonen durch den Zusatz dieser Chelate weit mehr als die Signale der exozyklischen -OCH2-Gruppen verschoben werden. Die Verschiebung kann man durch den Zusatz eines Alkohols rückgängig machen, der vorzugsweise mit dem Verschiebemittel reagiert.
    Notes: A preliminary study has been made of the effects of the shift reagents Eu (DPM)3 and Pr(DPM)3 on the NMR spectrum of Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (I). Protons attached to the epoxy ring were observed to shift appreciably more than protons of the exocyclic —OCH2— group, on addition of these chelates. The shifts could be reversed by addition of an alcohol, which interacted preferentially with the shift reagent.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: 13C-und 1H-NMR-Untersuchungen haben überzeugend gezeigt, daß die Hauptkomponente des Epoxidharzes aus Phenolphthalein und Epichlorhydrin ein aromatischer Diglycidyläther mit einem Lactonring ist und nicht eine chinoide Verbindung mit Glycidylätherund Glycidylesterstruktur.
    Notes: 13C- and 1H-NMR studies have shown conclusively that the main component of the epoxy resin derived from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin is an aromatic diglycidyl ether containing a lactone ring, rather than a glycidyl ether-glycidyl ester compound containing a quinoid ring.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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