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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2017. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017): 11075-11080, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704512114.
    Description: The large-scale reorganization of deep-ocean circulation in the Atlantic involving changes in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) played a critical role in regulating hemispheric and global climate during the last deglaciation. However, changes in the relative contributions of NADW and AABW and their properties are poorly constrained by marine records, including δ18O of benthic foraminiferal calcite (δ18Oc). Here we use an isotope-enabled ocean general circulation model with realistic geometry and forcing conditions to simulate the deglacial water mass and δ18O evolution. Model results suggest that in response to North Atlantic freshwater forcing during the early phase of the last deglaciation, NADW nearly collapses while AABW mildly weakens. Rather than reflecting changes in NADW or AABW properties due to freshwater input as suggested previously, the observed phasing difference of deep δ18Oc likely reflects early warming of the deep northern North Atlantic by ~1.4°C while deep Southern Ocean temperature remains largely unchanged. We propose a thermodynamic mechanism to explain the early warming in the North Atlantic, featuring a strong mid-depth warming and enhanced downward heat flux via vertical mixing. Our results emphasize that the way ocean circulation affects heat, a dynamic tracer, is considerably different than how it affects passive tracers like δ18O, and call for caution when inferring water mass changes from δ18Oc records while assuming uniform changes in deep temperatures.
    Description: This work is supported by the U.S. NSF P2C2 projects (1401778 and 1401802) and OCE projects (1600080 and 1566432), China NSFC 41630527, and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
    Keywords: Atlantic water masses ; Last deglaciation ; Oxygen isotopes ; Deep ocean warming
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 25 (2010): PA4101, doi:10.1029/2010PA001962.
    Description: Paleoceanographic studies using benthic foraminiferal Cd as a nutrient tracer have provided a robust means of reconstructing glacial Atlantic Ocean water mass geometry, but a paucity of data from the South Atlantic above 1200 m has limited investigation of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) configuration and formation. A new Cd depth profile from Brazil margin sediments suggests that AAIW penetrated northward at 1100 m to at least 27°S in the glacial Atlantic. It exhibited substantially reduced δ13Cas values, confirming preliminary evidence that this AAIW was unique to the glacial Atlantic and that it formed differently than today, with less atmospheric contact.
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Last glacial maximum ; Atlantic Ocean ; AAIW
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 32 (2017): 1174–1194, doi:10.1002/2017PA003122.
    Description: Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) of planktic foraminifera tests are commonly used as proxies to reconstruct past ocean conditions including variations in the vertical water column structure. Accurate proxy calibrations require thorough regional studies, since parameters such as calcification depth and temperature of planktic foraminifera depend on local environmental conditions. Here we present radiocarbon-dated, modern surface sediment samples and water column data (temperature, salinity, and seawater δ18O) from the Western Pacific Warm Pool. Seawater δ18O (δ18OSW) and salinity are used to calculate individual regressions for western Pacific surface and thermocline waters (δ18OSW = 0.37 × S-12.4 and δ18OSW = 0.33 × S-11.0). We combine shell δ18O and Mg/Ca with water column data to estimate calcification depths of several planktic foraminifera and establish regional Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations. Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides elongatus, and Globigerinoides sacculifer reflect mixed layer conditions. Pulleniatina obliquiloculata and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Globorotalia tumida preserve upper and lower thermocline conditions, respectively. Our multispecies Mg/Ca-temperature calibration (Mg/Ca = 0.26exp0.097*T) matches published regressions. Assuming the same temperature sensitivity in all species, we propose species-specific calibrations that can be used to reconstruct upper water column temperatures. The Mg/Ca temperature dependencies of G. ruber, G. elongatus, and G. tumida are similar to published equations. However, our data imply that calcification temperatures of G. sacculifer, P. obliquiloculata, and N. dutertrei are exceptionally warm in the western tropical Pacific and thus underestimated by previously published calibrations. Regional Mg/Ca-temperature relations are best described by Mg/Ca = 0.24exp0.097*T for G. sacculifer and by Mg/Ca = 0.21exp0.097*T for P. obliquiloculata and N. dutertrei.
    Description: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) Grant Number: 03G0228A; National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Number: OCE1131371; DFG-Research Center/Cluster of Excellence “The Ocean in the Earth System”
    Description: 2018-05-09
    Keywords: Western Pacific Warm Pool ; Mg/Ca calibration ; Oxygen isotopes ; Planktic foraminifera ; Thermocline reconstruction
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 7 (2006): Q10N03, doi:10.1029/2005GC001226.
    Description: The geostrophic shear associated with the meridional overturning circulation is reflected in the difference in density between the eastern and western margins of the ocean basin. Here we examine how the density difference across 30°S in the upper 2 km of the Atlantic Ocean (and thus the magnitude of the shear associated with the overturning circulation) has changed between the last glacial maximum and the present. We use oxygen isotope measurements on benthic foraminifera to reconstruct density. Today, the density in upper and intermediate waters along the eastern margin in the South Atlantic is greater than along the western margin, reflecting the vertical shear associated with the northward flow of surface and intermediate waters and the southward flowing North Atlantic Deep Waters below. The greater density along the eastern margin is reflected in the higher δ 18O values for surface sediment benthic foraminifera than those found on the western margin for the upper 2 km. For the last glacial maximum the available data indicate that the eastern margin foraminifera had similar δ 18O to those on the western margin between 1 and 2 km and that the gradient was reversed relative to today with the higher δ 18O values in the western margin benthic foraminifera above 1 km. If this reversal in benthic foraminifera δ 18O gradient reflects a reversal in seawater density gradient, these data are not consistent with a vigorous but shallower overturning cell in which surface waters entering the Atlantic basin are balanced by the southward export of Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF award OCE-9984989/OCE-0428803 to J.L.-S., NSF award OCE-9986748 to D.W.O. and W.B.C., NSF OCE-0222111 to C.D.C., and SEGRF fellowship at LLNL to J.M.
    Keywords: Last Glacial Maximum ; South Atlantic ; Meridional overturning circulation ; Oxygen isotopes ; Benthic foraminifera
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-11-22
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 20 (2005): PA4005, doi:10.1029/2004PA001061.
    Description: Detailed deglacial and Holocene records of planktonic δ18O and Mg/Ca–based sea surface temperature (SST) from the Okinawa Trough suggest that at ∼18 to 17 thousand years before present (kyr B.P.), late spring/early summer SSTs were approximately 3°C cooler than today, while surface waters were up to 1 practical salinity unit saltier. These conditions are consistent with a weaker influence of the summer East Asian Monsoon (EAM) than today. The timing of suborbital SST oscillations suggests a close link with abrupt changes in the EAM and North Atlantic climate. A tropical influence, however, may have resulted in subtle decoupling between the North Atlantic and the Okinawa Trough/EAM during the deglaciation. Okinawa Trough surface water trends in the Holocene are consistent with model simulations of an inland shift of intense EAM precipitation during the middle Holocene. Millennial-scale alternations between relatively warm, salty conditions and relatively cold, fresh conditions suggest varying influence of the Kuroshio during the Holocene.
    Description: Funding for this research was provided by NSFC (grants 40106006 and 40206007), SKLLQG (grant LLQG0204), and the NSF (OCE-020776 to DWO). Y.S.'s visit to WHOI was supported via a NSF START Fellowship.
    Keywords: Okinawa Trough ; Deglaciation ; Holocene ; Kuroshio Current ; East Asian monsoon ; Mg/Ca ; Oxygen isotopes ; Foraminifera
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 26 (2011): PA3219, doi:10.1029/2011PA002132.
    Description: Shell chemistry of planktic foraminifera and the alkenone unsaturation index in 69 surface sediment samples in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean off West and South Indonesia were studied. Results were compared to modern hydrographic data in order to assess how modern environmental conditions are preserved in sedimentary record, and to determine the best possible proxies to reconstruct seasonality, thermal gradient and upper water column characteristics in this part of the world ocean. Our results imply that alkenone-derived temperatures record annual mean temperatures in the study area. However, this finding might be an artifact due to the temperature limitation of this proxy above 28°C. Combined study of shell stable oxygen isotope and Mg/Ca ratio of planktic foraminifera suggests that Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto (s.s.), G. ruber sensu lato (s.l.), and G. sacculifer calcify within the mixed-layer between 20 m and 50 m, whereas Globigerina bulloides records mixed-layer conditions at ∼50 m depth during boreal summer. Mean calcifications of Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, and Globorotalia tumida occur at the top of the thermocline during boreal summer, at ∼75 m, 75–100 m, and 100 m, respectively. Shell Mg/Ca ratios of all species show a significant correlation with temperature at their apparent calcification depths and validate the application of previously published temperature calibrations, except for G. tumida that requires a regional Mg/Ca-temperature calibration (Mg/Ca = 0.41 exp (0.068*T)). We show that the difference in Mg/Ca-temperatures of the mixed-layer species and the thermocline species, particularly between G. ruber s.s. (or s.l.) and P. obliquiloculata, can be applied to track changes in the upper water column stratification. Our results provide critical tools for reconstructing past changes in the hydrography of the study area and their relation to monsoon, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode.
    Description: This project was funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF project PABESIA) and the “Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft” (DFG project HE 3412/15–1).
    Keywords: Indian Ocean ; Mg/Ca ; Alkenone ; Oxygen isotopes ; Planktic foraminifera ; Thermal structure
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 32 (2017): 1036–1053, doi:10.1002/2017PA003092.
    Description: Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) plays important roles in the global climate system and the global ocean nutrient and carbon cycles. However, it is unclear how AAIW responds to global climate changes. In particular, neodymium isotopic composition (εNd) reconstructions from different locations from the tropical Atlantic have led to a debate on the relationship between northward penetration of AAIW into the tropical Atlantic and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability during the last deglaciation. We resolve this controversy by studying the transient oceanic evolution during the last deglaciation using a neodymium-enabled ocean model. Our results suggest a coherent response of AAIW and AMOC: when AMOC weakens, the northward penetration and transport of AAIW decrease while its depth and thickness increase. Our study highlights that as part of the return flow of the North Atlantic Deep Water, the northward penetration of AAIW in the Atlantic is determined predominately by AMOC intensity. Moreover, the inconsistency among different tropical Atlantic εNd reconstructions is reconciled by considering their corresponding core locations and depths, which were influenced by different water masses in the past. The very radiogenic water from the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, which was previously overlooked in the interpretations of deglacial εNd variability, can be transported to shallow layers during active AMOC and modulates εNd in the tropical Atlantic. Changes in the AAIW core depth must also be considered. Thus, interpretation of εNd reconstructions from the tropical Atlantic is more complicated than suggested in previous studies.
    Description: NSF P2C2. Grant Numbers: NSF1401778, NSF1401802 DOE Grant Number: DE-SC0006744; NSFC Grant Numbers: 41630527, 41130105; Swiss National Science Foundation; WHOI Investing in Science Program; U.S. DOE the RGCM program; LDRD
    Description: 2018-04-24
    Keywords: AAIW ; AMOC ; Deglacial ; Neodymium isotope ; Paleocirculation tracer
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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