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  • 1
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Anastomoses ; Crystal zoning ; Snow bands ; Liesegang rings ; Ostwald ripening ; Self organization ; Siderite ; Supersaturation theory ; Zebra rock
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Morphological instabilities in periodic patterns occurring both in precipitation and crystallization processes (Liesegang rings and crystal zoning) are investigated and compared with similar patterns in geological samples (zebra rocks and mud bands in snow sediments). In classical Liesegang systems, undisturbed parallel or concentric precipitation bands are emanated from even or concentric diffusion sources in homogeneous diffusion matrices of gelatine or other gels. In the case of superposing diffusion sources, sources with undulatory curvatures or local diffusion barriers there may occur several types of instabilities within the sequence of regular patterns: (a) gaps within the bands forming radial alleys free of precipitate, (b) transition from broken bands to speckled patterns and (c) apparent branching of bands linked together by so-called anastomoses. Calculations with a competitive particle growth (CPG) model show that lateral instabilities in Liesegang bands (gaps and radial alleys of gaps) are the result of Ostwald ripening effects taking place after precipitation. Apparent branching of bands or formation of anastomoses can be simulated with a prenucleation model according to Ostwald's supersaturation theory. Similar irregularities can be observed in zebra rocks (e.g. banded siderite) whose bandings are commonly explained by sequential sedimentation processes. A very different mechanism is assumed to be responsible for the origin of mud bands in snow sediments. An initially homogeneous distribution of intrinsic mud in snow sediments can be arranged into parallel bands according to a crystal zoning mechanism which is based on repeated thawing and freezing of the snow sediment due to the daily alternation of sun and darkness.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Banded mineralization ; Harz mountains ; Self-organization ; Iron ; manganese ; ferrihydrite ; birnessite ; Time-series analysis ; Aquatic systems ; Iron bacteria ; Ostwald ripening
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  A recent early diagenetic banded iron–manganese mud has been forming underground in a closed lead–zinc mine for approximately 40 years. The processes leading to the banded structure of the precipitate were studied during a period of 2 years. Therefore, 19 physical and chemical parameters were measured regularly in short intervals. The resulting time series were analysed with respect to the data sets of the monthly chemical analyses of the descendent mine water, the daily rainfall and the mineral content. The results reveal that the precipitated material undergoes internal self-organization due to interaction of redox, colloid-chemical, microbial, electrical and ripening processes, and not exclusively produced by seasonal fluctuations of material input. Thus, the primary banding of the material, caused by externally forced fluctuations of the redox conditions within the mine water, is reorganized after a short time. The finally observed bands are controlled by non-linear coupling of reaction and transport processes within the mud. A genetic model for the banded mineralization was developed and verified by numerical simulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Anastomoses ; Crystal zoning ; Snow bands ; Liesegang rings ; Ostwald ripening ; Self organization ; Siderite ; Supersaturation theory ; Zebra rock
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Morphological instabilities in periodic patterns occurring both in precipitation and crystallization processes (Liesegang rings and crystal zoning) are investigated and compared with similar patterns in geological samples (zebra rocks and mud bands in snow sediments). In classical Liesegang systems, undisturbed parallel or concentric precipitation bands are emanated from even or concentric diffusion sources in homogeneous diffusion matrices of gelatine or other gels. In the case of superposing diffusion sources, sources with undulatory curvatures or local diffusion barriers there may occur several types of instabilities within the sequence of regular patterns: (a) gaps within the bands forming radial alleys free of precipitate, (b) transition from broken bands to speckled patterns and (c) apparent branching of bands linked together by so-called anastomoses. Calculations with a competitive particle growth (CPG) model show that lateral instabilities in Liesegang bands (gaps and radial alleys of gaps) are the result of Ostwald ripening effects taking place after precipitation. Apparent branching of bands or formation of anastomoses can be simulated with a prenucleation model according to Ostwald's supersaturation theory. Similar irregularities can be observed in zebra rocks (e.g. banded siderite) whose bandings are commonly explained by sequential sedimentation processes. A very different mechanism is assumed to be responsible for the origin of mud bands in snow sediments. An initially homogeneous distribution of intrinsic mud in snow sediments can be arranged into parallel bands according to a crystal zoning mechanism which is based on repeated thawing and freezing of the snow sediment due to the daily alternation of sun and darkness.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Banded mineralization ; Harz mountains ; Self-organization ; Iron, manganese, ferrihydrite, birnessite ; Time-series analysis ; Aquatic systems ; Iron bacteria ; Ostwald ripening
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A recent early diagenetic banded iron-manganese mud has been forming underground in a closed lead-zinc mine for approximately 40 years. The processes leading to the banded structure of the precipitate were studied during a period of 2 years. Therefore, 19 physical and chemical parameters were measured regularly in short intervals. The resulting time series were analysed with respect to the data sets of the monthly chemical analyses of the descendent mine water, the daily rainfall and the mineral content. The results reveal that the precipitated material undergoes internal self-organization due to interaction of redox, colloid-chemical, microbial, electrical and ripening processes, and not exclusively produced by seasonal fluctuations of material input. Thus, the primary banding of the material, caused by externally forced fluctuations of the redox conditions within the mine water, is reorganized after a short time. The finally observed bands are controlled by non-linear coupling of reaction and transport processes within the mud. A genetic model for the banded mineralization was developed and verified by numerical simulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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