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  • 1
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analysis of the electronic structure of the hydroxymethanes provides a consistent picture of stereoelectronic effects in such molecules: The average C—O bond length decreases in the series methanol, methanediol, methanetriol. An oxygen (O′) lone pair, which is trans-anti-periplanar (app) to another oxygen (O″), shortens and strengthens the C—O′ bond and simultaneously lengthens and weakens the C—O′ bond. This is consistent with solid state structural evidence and with the reactivity patterns of tetrahedral species resulting from nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl group.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polyaza-polyoxa macrobicyclic ligands: its synthesis and metal complexes.The synthesis of the polyaza-polyoxa macrobicyclic ligands 1-4 is described. They form complexes with a variety of metal cations, transition metal cations as well as alkali and alkaline-earth cations. These complexes may be formulated as cation inclusion complexes, cryptates, in which the cation is contained in the intramolecular cavity. The properties of the complexes are described. An especially interesting feature is that these ligands, polymines of macrobicyclic topology, provide a means of trapping transition metal cations inside a molecular cavity; thus they impose coordination geometries and may modify the spectral and redox properties of the cations.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ab initio theoretical study of all fifteen fully staggered conformations of aminodihydroxymethane, CH(OH)2NH2 has been performed. Optimization of the C—O and C—N bond lengths, population analyses and orbital localisation reveal the presence of marked conformation dependent stereoelectronic effects which influence bond lengths and overlap populations. These effects may be parametrized as a function of number and nature of antiperiplanar (app) oriented electronic lone pairs (1p) and polar bonds. In a Y—C—X fragment an app orientation between a lone pair on Y and the C—X bond increases the length and weakens the C—X bond, shortens and strengthens the C—Y bond. Thus a C—X (X = O, N) bond of CH(OH)2NH2 is longest and weakest when: (i) it is app to two vicinal lp's; (ii) the X 1p's are not app to a vicinal polar bond; (iii) the conformation of the molecule has as many axially oriented lp's as possible. Results (i) and (ii) agree with a simple hyperconjugation picture involving interaction between an electronic 1p and an app oriented antibonding bond orbital σ* (C—X). Bond properties, relative energies and effects on reactivity of the tetrahedral species are discussed, as well as their relations to experimental results on the cleavage of tetrahedral intermediates and to enzyme catalysis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The optically active macrotricyclic cryptands 1 and 2, containing the binaphthyl group as chiral unit, have been synthesized. These compounds contain lateral cavities which may serve as anchoring sites for polar groups of the substrates and a central, chiral cavity large enough for including more or les completely the bulk of a molecular ion. Their complexation properties towards molecular ions give evidence for the occurrence of two types of processes: (a) direct complexation of primary ammonium cations, like phenylethyl ammonium chloride, occurs with either 1 or 2; (b) cascade binding, involving first complexation of an alkali cation followed by pairing with a molecular anion, takes place with 2. Process (b) may be considered as a metallo-receptor model system where binding of an anionic substrate is dependent on initial binding of a cation. In both cases (a) and (b) weak resolution of chiral racemic substrates has been observed by extraction and transport (through a bulk liquid membrane) experiments. This indicates that in the complex the bulk of the substrate should be located close to the chiral unit and therefore more or less in the central cavity. In the case of cryptand 2, the resolution achieved for the (±)-mandelate anion is markedly affected by the nature of the complexed cation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis of a series of polyguanidinium salts of potential interest as anion complexones is described. Among the various synthetic methods investigated, the polyguanidinium salts were found to be most conveniently prepared from polyamines via polynitroguanidine intermediates. The complexation of phosphate and carboxylate anions by these complexones and by related polyammonium salts were studied by analysis of pH-metric titration data. The ligands studied from relatively stable complexes (log Ks = 2.0-4.0 for PO43- in water) which also present good selectivities in some cases. Both the stability and the selectivity of complexation are primarily governed by electrostatic forces and thus depend on charge accumulation in the interacting species; structural effects are also observed. Since the binding is primarily electrostatic, polyammonium salts from more stable complexes (at a given charge) than do polyguanidinium salts. However, whereas the complexation properties of the latter are independent of pH, the complexes of the former are observed only in the limited ranges of pH where both the protonated polyamine and the anion of interest can coexist. The polycationic ligands may, in principle, form chelate type anion complexes. Comparison with the corresponding single binding sites reveals an increase in complexation constant of about two or three orders of magnitude; this may be considered as a thermodynamic indication of a chelate effect for the polydentate ligands (by analogy with the well known effects displayed by cation complexones); however, structural data on the formation of chelate ‘rings’ are not yet available. The nature of the complexes and the prospects of anion complexones in various fields are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two efficient methods are described for the selective modification of all six primary hydroxyl groups of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD, 11). One, using an indirect strategy, involves protection of all 18 hydroxyl functions as benzoate esters, followed by selective deprotection of the six primary alcohol groups. The other, using a direct strategy, involves selective activation of the primary hydroxyl groups via a bulky triphenylphosphonium salt, which is then substituted by azide anion as the reaction proceeds. A number of modified α-cyclodextrin derivatives have been prepared and fully characterized, among which are: the useful intermediate α-cyclodextrin-dodeca (2, 3) benzoate (3); hexakis (6-amino-6-deoxy)-α-cyclodextrin hexahydrochloride (7); hexakis (6-amino-6-deoxy)-dodeca (2, 3)-O-methyl-α-cyclodextrin hexahydrochloride (9), hexa (6)-O-methyl-α-cyclodextrin (13). The direct substitution is shown to be even more efficient for β-cyclodextrin (16), giving the heptakis (6-azido-6-deoxy)-β-CD-tetradeca (2, 3)acetate (17), while the indirect strategy fails. The compounds are characterized by extensive use of 13C- and 1H-NMR. spectroscopy. The steric and statistical problems of selective polysubstitution reactions for the cyclodextrins are discussed, and possible reasons for the observed differences in reactivity between α- and β-cyclodextrins are examined.The dodecabenzoate 3 presents a very marked solvent effect on physical properties (IR. and NMR. spectra, optical rotation); the effects observed may be ascribed to an unusually strong intramolecular network of hydrogen bonds which severely distorts the α-cyclodextrin ring and lowers the symmetry from six-fold to three-fold.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A chiral macrocyclic crown ether exhibits an enantiomer-selectivity of 2.6 for α-phenylethylammonium ion when incorporated in solvent polymeric membranes. The sequence of selectivity of these membranes clearly differs from that of lipophilicity for the different biogenic ammonium ions studied, indicating a significant structural contribution.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Molecular catalysis of ATP-hydrolysis by a number of protonated macrocyclic polyamines 1-9 has been investigated by 31P-NMR spectroscopy, and marked rate enhancements have been obtained. The largest acceleration is produced by the [24]-N6O2 macrocycle 1, and the process displays the following properties: 1. protonated 1 forms very stable complexes with ATP, as well as with ADP and AMP; 2. it enhances the rate of ATP-hydrolysis by a factor of 103 at pH = 8.5; the rate of hydrolysis is constant over a wide pH-range, from pH = 2.5 to 8.5; 3. 1 is more efficient than acyclic analogues; 4. the products of the reaction are orthophosphate (OP) and ADP, which is subsequently hydrolyzed to OP and AMP at a slower rate; 5. at pH 〉 6.5, a transient species is detected, which is tentatively identified as a phosphoramidate intermediate, resulting from phosphorylation of the macrocycle 1; 6. the reaction presents first-order kinetics and is catalytic. The mechanism of the process is discussed in terms of initial formation of a complex between ATP and protonated 1, followed by an intracomplex reaction which may involve a combination of nucleophilic or acid catalysis with electrostatic catalysis.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 2,7-diazapyrenium group (DAP2+) combines the features of pyrene, of methylviologen, and of nucleicacid intercalators and may thus present a variety of interesting properties. The cations 1 and 2 and the bis-diazapyrenium species 3 have been synthesized and shown to bind molecular anions like aromatic polycarboxylates, giving rise to pronounced shifts of 1H-NMR signals, modifications of UV/VIS absorption spectra, and quenching of fluorescence. The complexes formed probably have a face-to-face structure, and their stability constants are remarkably high, in particular for the bis-diazapyrenium cation 3 which is susceptible to form intercalative chelate complexes such as 9(log Ks ≈ 3 for 1, up to ca. 7 or more for 3a). Neutral molecules like adenine are also bound, but much less strongly. Visible-light irradiation of Me2DAP2+ (1) in presence of various electron donors, such as EDTA, gives the reduced species Me2DAP+ wich has been characterized by UV/VIS and ESR spectroscopy. The results indicate that Me2DAP2+ (1) functions as a methylviologen analogue, photoactive in visible light. Thus 2,7-diazapyrenium cations are attractive subunits for incorporation into macropolycyclic structures to give photo- and electroactive receptor molecules.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: [fac-Re(bpy) (CO)3Cl] (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) is an efficient homogeneous catalyst for the selective and sustained photochemical or electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO. A quantum yield of 14% and a faradic efficiency of 98% were measured in the presence of excess Cl- ions. The photochemical process took place under visible-light irradiation and consumed a tertiary amine as electron donor. A formato-rhenium complex was isolated in the absence of excess Cl- ions. Substitution by Cl- ion generated free formate, but no CO was detected. Luminescence measurements showed that the tertiary amine quenches the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state of the rhenium complex via a reductive mechanism, with a rate constant of 3.4 × 107M-1S-1. The 19e-complex [Re(bpy) (CO)3X]- produced either photochemically or electrochemically appears to be the active precursor in the CO-generation process. Detailed spectroscopic studies on 13C-enriched carbonyl-rhenium and formato-rhenium complexes derived from 13C-enriched CO2 were performed in order to confirm the origin of the products and to study the exchange of the ligands. A mechanism for the present CO2 photoreduction process is presented; it involves separate pathways for CO and formate generation, in which the [Re(bpy) (CO)3X] complex plays the role of both the photoactive and the catalytic center.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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