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  • 1
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Self-assembly ; Information processing ; Molecular information processing ; Molecular recognition ; Supramolecular chemistry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The selective binding of a substrate by a molecular receptor to form a supramolecular species involves molecular recognition which rests on the molecular information stored in the interacting species. The functions of supermolecules cover recognition, as well as catalysis and transport. In combination with polymolecular organization, they open ways towards molecular and supramolecular devices for information processing and signal generation. The development of such devices requires the design of molecular components performing a given function (e.g., photoactive, electroactive, ionoactive, thermoactive, or chemoactive) and suitable for assembly into an organized array. Light-conversion devices and charge-separation centers have been realized with photoactive cryptates formed by receptors containing photosensitive groups. Eleclroactive and ionoactive devices are required for carrying information via electronic and ionic signals. Redox-active polyolefinic chains, like the “caroviologens”, represent molecular wires for electron transfer through membranes. Push-pull polyolefins possess marked nonlinear optical properties. Tubular mesophases, formed by organized stacking of suitable macro-cyclic components, as well as “chundle”-type structures, based on bundles of chains grafted onto a macrocyclic support, represent approaches to ion channels. Lipophilic macrocyclic units form Langmuir-Blodgett films that may display molecular recognition at the air-water interface. Supramolecular chemistry has relied on more or less preorganized molecular receptors for effecting molecular recognition, catalysis, and transport processes. A step beyond preorganization consists in the design of systems undergoing self-organization, that is, systems capable of spontaneously generating a well-defined supramolecular architecture by self-assembling from their components under a given set of conditions. Several approaches to self-assembling systems have been pursued: the formation of helical metal complexes, the double-stranded helicates, which result from the spontaneous organization of two linear polybipyridine ligands into a double helix by binding of specific metal ions; the generation of mesophases and liquid crystalline polymers of supramolecular nature from complementary components, amounting to macroscopic expression of molecular recognition; the molecular-recognition-directed formation of ordered solid-state structures. Endowing photo-, electro-, and ionoactive components with recognition elements opens perspectives towards the design of programmed molecular and supramolecular systems capable of self-assembly into organized and functional supramolecular devices. Such systems may be able to perform highly selective operations of recognition, reaction, transfer, and structure generation for signal and information processing at the molecular and supramolecular levels.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Grid complexes ; Self-assembly ; Co ; Zn ; Coordination chemistry ; Bis(tridentate) ligands ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The tretrametallic [2 × 2] grid-type complexes 1-4 are formed by self-assembly of the bis(tridentate) ligands 5 and 6 with ZnII and CoII cations. They have been characterized by spectroscopic studies in solution as well as by crystal structure determination. The substituents in the central pyrimidine ring play an important role in terms of geometry and physical properties of the complexes. They induce an orthogonal orientation of the ligand in the complexes which is critical for the formation of ordered monolayers and extended self-organized arrays of grids. The physical properties of the complexes such as metal-metal interaction and π-π* stacking between the ligands may be modulated by changing these substituents.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Helicates ; Oligobipyridine ligands ; Self-recognition ; NMR titration ; Self-assembly ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Oligobipyridine ligands containing one or two imine bridges were found to form double helicates by treatment with copper(I) or silver(I). The properties of the complexes are similar to those of oxapropylene-bridged oligobipyridines. Titration of a mixture of the bis(bipyridine) and the tris(bipyridine) ligands with silver(I) hexafluorophosphate showed that helicates formed with strict self-recognition.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analysis of the electronic structure of the hydroxymethanes provides a consistent picture of stereoelectronic effects in such molecules: The average C—O bond length decreases in the series methanol, methanediol, methanetriol. An oxygen (O′) lone pair, which is trans-anti-periplanar (app) to another oxygen (O″), shortens and strengthens the C—O′ bond and simultaneously lengthens and weakens the C—O′ bond. This is consistent with solid state structural evidence and with the reactivity patterns of tetrahedral species resulting from nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl group.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polyaza-polyoxa macrobicyclic ligands: its synthesis and metal complexes.The synthesis of the polyaza-polyoxa macrobicyclic ligands 1-4 is described. They form complexes with a variety of metal cations, transition metal cations as well as alkali and alkaline-earth cations. These complexes may be formulated as cation inclusion complexes, cryptates, in which the cation is contained in the intramolecular cavity. The properties of the complexes are described. An especially interesting feature is that these ligands, polymines of macrobicyclic topology, provide a means of trapping transition metal cations inside a molecular cavity; thus they impose coordination geometries and may modify the spectral and redox properties of the cations.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ab initio theoretical study of all fifteen fully staggered conformations of aminodihydroxymethane, CH(OH)2NH2 has been performed. Optimization of the C—O and C—N bond lengths, population analyses and orbital localisation reveal the presence of marked conformation dependent stereoelectronic effects which influence bond lengths and overlap populations. These effects may be parametrized as a function of number and nature of antiperiplanar (app) oriented electronic lone pairs (1p) and polar bonds. In a Y—C—X fragment an app orientation between a lone pair on Y and the C—X bond increases the length and weakens the C—X bond, shortens and strengthens the C—Y bond. Thus a C—X (X = O, N) bond of CH(OH)2NH2 is longest and weakest when: (i) it is app to two vicinal lp's; (ii) the X 1p's are not app to a vicinal polar bond; (iii) the conformation of the molecule has as many axially oriented lp's as possible. Results (i) and (ii) agree with a simple hyperconjugation picture involving interaction between an electronic 1p and an app oriented antibonding bond orbital σ* (C—X). Bond properties, relative energies and effects on reactivity of the tetrahedral species are discussed, as well as their relations to experimental results on the cleavage of tetrahedral intermediates and to enzyme catalysis.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The optically active macrotricyclic cryptands 1 and 2, containing the binaphthyl group as chiral unit, have been synthesized. These compounds contain lateral cavities which may serve as anchoring sites for polar groups of the substrates and a central, chiral cavity large enough for including more or les completely the bulk of a molecular ion. Their complexation properties towards molecular ions give evidence for the occurrence of two types of processes: (a) direct complexation of primary ammonium cations, like phenylethyl ammonium chloride, occurs with either 1 or 2; (b) cascade binding, involving first complexation of an alkali cation followed by pairing with a molecular anion, takes place with 2. Process (b) may be considered as a metallo-receptor model system where binding of an anionic substrate is dependent on initial binding of a cation. In both cases (a) and (b) weak resolution of chiral racemic substrates has been observed by extraction and transport (through a bulk liquid membrane) experiments. This indicates that in the complex the bulk of the substrate should be located close to the chiral unit and therefore more or less in the central cavity. In the case of cryptand 2, the resolution achieved for the (±)-mandelate anion is markedly affected by the nature of the complexed cation.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis of a series of polyguanidinium salts of potential interest as anion complexones is described. Among the various synthetic methods investigated, the polyguanidinium salts were found to be most conveniently prepared from polyamines via polynitroguanidine intermediates. The complexation of phosphate and carboxylate anions by these complexones and by related polyammonium salts were studied by analysis of pH-metric titration data. The ligands studied from relatively stable complexes (log Ks = 2.0-4.0 for PO43- in water) which also present good selectivities in some cases. Both the stability and the selectivity of complexation are primarily governed by electrostatic forces and thus depend on charge accumulation in the interacting species; structural effects are also observed. Since the binding is primarily electrostatic, polyammonium salts from more stable complexes (at a given charge) than do polyguanidinium salts. However, whereas the complexation properties of the latter are independent of pH, the complexes of the former are observed only in the limited ranges of pH where both the protonated polyamine and the anion of interest can coexist. The polycationic ligands may, in principle, form chelate type anion complexes. Comparison with the corresponding single binding sites reveals an increase in complexation constant of about two or three orders of magnitude; this may be considered as a thermodynamic indication of a chelate effect for the polydentate ligands (by analogy with the well known effects displayed by cation complexones); however, structural data on the formation of chelate ‘rings’ are not yet available. The nature of the complexes and the prospects of anion complexones in various fields are discussed.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two efficient methods are described for the selective modification of all six primary hydroxyl groups of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD, 11). One, using an indirect strategy, involves protection of all 18 hydroxyl functions as benzoate esters, followed by selective deprotection of the six primary alcohol groups. The other, using a direct strategy, involves selective activation of the primary hydroxyl groups via a bulky triphenylphosphonium salt, which is then substituted by azide anion as the reaction proceeds. A number of modified α-cyclodextrin derivatives have been prepared and fully characterized, among which are: the useful intermediate α-cyclodextrin-dodeca (2, 3) benzoate (3); hexakis (6-amino-6-deoxy)-α-cyclodextrin hexahydrochloride (7); hexakis (6-amino-6-deoxy)-dodeca (2, 3)-O-methyl-α-cyclodextrin hexahydrochloride (9), hexa (6)-O-methyl-α-cyclodextrin (13). The direct substitution is shown to be even more efficient for β-cyclodextrin (16), giving the heptakis (6-azido-6-deoxy)-β-CD-tetradeca (2, 3)acetate (17), while the indirect strategy fails. The compounds are characterized by extensive use of 13C- and 1H-NMR. spectroscopy. The steric and statistical problems of selective polysubstitution reactions for the cyclodextrins are discussed, and possible reasons for the observed differences in reactivity between α- and β-cyclodextrins are examined.The dodecabenzoate 3 presents a very marked solvent effect on physical properties (IR. and NMR. spectra, optical rotation); the effects observed may be ascribed to an unusually strong intramolecular network of hydrogen bonds which severely distorts the α-cyclodextrin ring and lowers the symmetry from six-fold to three-fold.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A chiral macrocyclic crown ether exhibits an enantiomer-selectivity of 2.6 for α-phenylethylammonium ion when incorporated in solvent polymeric membranes. The sequence of selectivity of these membranes clearly differs from that of lipophilicity for the different biogenic ammonium ions studied, indicating a significant structural contribution.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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