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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The oceans have a major impact on global geophysical processes of the Earth. Non-tidal changes in oceanic currents and ocean-bottom pressure have been shown to be a major source of polar motion excitation and also measurably change the length of the day. The changing mass distribution of the oceans causes the Earth's gravitational field to change and causes the center-of-mass of the oceans to change which in turn causes the center-of-mass of the solid Earth to change. The changing mass distribution of the oceans also changes the load on the oceanic crust, thereby affecting both the vertical and horizontal position of observing stations located near the oceans. Recognizing the important role that non-tidal oceanic processes play in Earth rotation dynamics and terrestrial reference frame definition, the International Earth Rotation Service has recently created a Special Bureau for the Oceans in order to facilitate research into these and other solid Earth geophysical processes affected by the oceans.
    Keywords: Oceanography
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: URSI General Assembly Meeting; Oct 23, 2005 - Oct 29, 2005; Dehli; India
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: A three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme for the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), named ROMS3DVAR, has been described in the work of Li et al. (2008). In this paper, ROMS3DVAR is applied to the central California coastal region, an area characterized by inhomogeneity and anisotropy, as well as by dynamically unbalanced flows. A method for estimating the model error variances from limited observations is presented, and the construction of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic error correlations based on the Kronecker product is demonstrated. A set of single observation experiments illustrates the inhomogeneous and anisotropic error correlations and weak dynamic constraints used. Results are presented from the assimilation of data gathered during the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) experiment during August 2003. The results show that ROMS3DVAR is capable of reproducing complex flows associated with upwelling and relaxation, as well as the rapid transitions between them. Some difficulties encountered during the experiment are also discussed.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Journal Of Geophysical Research; Volume 113
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: An algorithm is proposed for the computation of streamfunction and velocity potential from given horizontal velocity vectors based on solving a minimization problem. To guarantee the uniqueness of the solution and computational reliability of the algorithm, a Tikhonov regularization is applied. The solution implies that the obtained streamfunction and velocity potential have minimal magnitude, while the given velocity vectors can be accurately reconstructed from the computed streamfunction and velocity potential. Because the formulation of the minimization problem allows for circumventing the explicit specification of separate boundary conditions on the streamfunction and velocity potential, the algorithm is easily applicable to irregular domains. By using an advanced minimization algorithm with the use of adjoint techniques, the method is computationally efficient and suitable for problems with large dimensions. An example is presented for coastal oceans to illustrate the practical application of the algorithm.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Monthly Weather Review; Volume 134; Issue 11; 3384-3394
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: World Meteorological Organization, Assimilation of Observations in Oceanography; Mar 13, 1995 - Mar 17, 1995; Tokyo; Japan
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  • 6
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    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Ocean modeling plays an important role in understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting the future climate change. Modeling the ocean at eddy-permitting and/or eddy resolving resolutions (1/3 degree or higher) has a two-fold objective. One part is to represent the ocean as realistically as possible, because mesoscale eddies have an impact on the large-scale circulation. The second objective is to learn how to represent effects of mesoscale eddies without explicitly resolving them. This is particularly important for climate models which cannot be run at eddy-resolving resolutions because of the computational constraints. At JPL, a 1/6 degree latitude by 1/6 degree longitude with 37 vertical levels Atlantic Ocean model has been developed. The model is based on the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Using the 256-processor Cray T3D, we have conducted a 40-year integration of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model. A regional analysis demonstrate that many observed features associated with the Caribbean Sea eddies can be realistically simulated by this model. Analysis of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model further suggests that these Caribbean Sea eddies are connected with eddies formed outside the Caribbean Sea at the confluence of the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The diagram of the model simulated surface current shows that the Caribbean eddies ultimately originate in the NBC retroflection region, traveling more than a year from the North Brazil coast through the Lesser Antilles into the Caribbean Sea and eventually into the Gulf of Mexico. Additional information is contained in the original.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Climate Variability Program; 10; JPL-Publ-99-7
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric sea level observation during 1992-1993 was used to validate the simulation made by a global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) forced by the daily wind stress and heat flux derived from the National Meteorological Center operational analysis. The OGCM is a version of the modular ocean model with a horizontal resolution of 2 deg longitude and 1 deg latitude and 22 levels in the vertical. The model simulation is compared to the observation at spatial scales of the order of 500 km and larger. Only the temporal variations are examined. The variability is composed primarily of the annual cycle and intraseasonal fluctuations (periods shorter than 100 days). The basic features of the annual cycle are simulated well by the model. Major discrepancies are found in the eastern tropical Pacific, as well as the eastern North Pacific and most of the interior of the North Atlantic. The culprit is suspected to be the inadequate heat forcing and mixing parameterizations of the model. Significant intraseasonal variability is found in the central North Pacific and the Southern Ocean. The simulation is highly correlated with the observation at periods from 20 to 100 days. The spatial scales are larger than 1000 km in many places. These variabilities are apparently the barotropic response of the ocean to wind forcing. The results of the study provide a basis for future assimilation of the data into the OGCM for improved description of the large-scale ocean variabilities.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Paper 95JC02260 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; C12; 24,965-24,976
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Towards Estimating Global Ocean Circulation Combining TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter Data and an Ocean General Circulation Model, International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric sea level observation during 1992-93 was used to validate the.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans
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