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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 116 (2011): C12020, doi:10.1029/2011JC006998.
    Description: A three dimensional model of Arctic Ocean circulation and mixing, with a horizontal resolution of 18 km, is overlain by a biogeochemical model resolving the physical, chemical and biological transport and transformations of phosphorus, alkalinity, oxygen and carbon, including the air-sea exchange of dissolved gases and the riverine delivery of dissolved organic carbon. The model qualitatively captures the observed regional and seasonal trends in surface ocean PO4, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, and pCO2. Integrated annually, over the basin, the model suggests a net annual uptake of 59 Tg C a−1, within the range of published estimates based on the extrapolation of local observations (20–199 Tg C a−1). This flux is attributable to the cooling (increasing solubility) of waters moving into the basin, mainly from the subpolar North Atlantic. The air-sea flux is regulated seasonally and regionally by sea-ice cover, which modulates both air-sea gas transfer and the photosynthetic production of organic matter, and by the delivery of riverine dissolved organic carbon (RDOC), which drive the regional contrasts in pCO2 between Eurasian and North American coastal waters. Integrated over the basin, the delivery and remineralization of RDOC reduces the net oceanic CO2 uptake by ~10%.
    Description: This study has been carried out as part of ECCO2 and SASS (Synthesis of the Arctic System Science) projects funded by NASA and NSF, respectively. MM and MJF are grateful for support from the National Science Foundation (ARC-0531119 and ARC-0806229) for financial support. MM also acknowledges NASA for providing computer time, the use of the computing facilities at NAS center and also the Scripps post-doctoral program for further financial support that helped to complete the manuscript. RMK also acknowledges NOAA for support (NA08OAR4310820 and NA08OAR4320752).
    Description: 2012-06-15
    Keywords: Air-sea gas exchange ; Biogeochemical cycles ; Land-ocean coupling ; Numerical modeling ; Ocean carbon cycle ; Polar oceans
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Annual Review of Marine Science 8 (2016): 185-215, doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-052915-100829.
    Description: The ocean, a central component of Earth’s climate system, is changing. Given the global scope of these changes, highly accurate measurements of physical and biogeochemical properties need to be conducted over the full water column, spanning the ocean basins from coast to coast, and repeated every decade at a minimum, with a ship-based observing system. Since the late 1970s, when the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) conducted the first global survey of this kind, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and now the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) have collected these “reference standard” data that allow quantification of ocean heat and carbon uptake, and variations in salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and acidity on basin scales. The evolving GO-SHIP measurement suite also provides new global information about dissolved organic carbon, a large bioactive reservoir of carbon.
    Description: Climate Observations Division of the U.S. NOAA Climate Program Office and NOAA Research; Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) under NOAA Cooperative Agreement NA10OAR4320148; U.S. National Science Foundation [OCE- 0223869; OCE-0752970; OCE-0825163; OCE-1434000; OCE 0752972; OCE-0752980; OCE-1232962; OCE-1155983; OCE-1436748]; U.S. CLIVAR Project Office; Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency; Australian Climate Change Science Program (Australian Department of Environment and CSIRO); U.K. Natural Environment Research Council; European Union’s FP7 grant agreement 264879 (CarboChange); Horizon 2020 grant agreement No 633211; ETH Zurich Switzerland.
    Keywords: Anthropogenic climate change ; Ocean temperature change ; Salinity change ; Ocean carbon cycle ; Ocean oxygen and nutrients ; Ocean chlorofluorocarbons ; Ocean circulation change ; Ocean mixing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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