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  • Articles  (7)
  • Coral  (3)
  • AAIW  (2)
  • North Atlantic  (2)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-08-16
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 32 (2017): 146–160, doi:10.1002/2016PA002976.
    Description: Coral skeletons are valuable archives of past ocean conditions. However, interpretation of coral paleotemperature records is confounded by uncertainties associated with single-element ratio thermometers, including Sr/Ca. A new approach, Sr-U, uses U/Ca to constrain the influence of Rayleigh fractionation on Sr/Ca. Here we build on the initial Pacific Porites Sr-U calibration to include multiple Atlantic and Pacific coral genera from multiple coral reef locations spanning a temperature range of 23.15–30.12°C. Accounting for the wintertime growth cessation of one Bermuda coral, we show that Sr-U is strongly correlated with the average water temperature at each location (r2 = 0.91, P 〈 0.001, n = 19). We applied the multispecies spatial calibration between Sr-U and temperature to reconstruct a 96 year long temperature record at Mona Island, Puerto Rico, using a coral not included in the calibration. Average Sr-U derived temperature for the period 1900–1996 is within 0.12°C of the average instrumental temperature at this site and captures the twentieth century warming trend of 0.06°C per decade. Sr-U also captures the timing of multiyear variability but with higher amplitude than implied by the instrumental data. Mean Sr-U temperatures and patterns of multiyear variability were replicated in a second coral in the same grid box. Conversely, Sr/Ca records from the same two corals were inconsistent with each other and failed to capture absolute sea temperatures, timing of multiyear variability, or the twentieth century warming trend. Our results suggest that coral Sr-U paleothermometry is a promising new tool for reconstruction of past ocean temperatures.
    Description: NSF Graduate Research Fellowships Grant Numbers: NSF-OCE-1338320, NSF-OCE-1031971, NSF-OCE-0926986; WHOI Access to the Sea Grant Numbers: 27500056, 0734826; NSF HRD; UPR Central Administration to EAHD through the Center for Applied Tropical Ecology and Conservation of UPR
    Description: 2017-08-16
    Keywords: Coral ; Temperature ; Paleoceangraphy ; Paleothermometry ; Global warming ; Biomineralization
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 23 (2008): PA3102, doi:10.1029/2007PA001572.
    Description: We analyzed strontium/calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) in four colonies of the Atlantic coral genus Montastrea with growth rates ranging from 2.3 to 12.6 mm a−1. Derived Sr/Ca–sea surface temperature (SST) calibrations exhibit significant differences among the four colonies that cannot be explained by variations in SST or seawater Sr/Ca. For a single coral Sr/Ca ratio of 8.8 mmol mol−1, the four calibrations predict SSTs ranging from 24.0° to 30.9°C. We find that differences in the Sr/Ca–SST relationships are correlated systematically with the average annual extension rate (ext) of each colony such that Sr/Ca (mmol mol−1) = 11.82 (±0.13) – 0.058 (±0.004) × ext (mm a−1) – 0.092 (±0.005) × SST (°C). This observation is consistent with previous reports of a link between coral Sr/Ca and growth rate. Verification of our growth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration using a coral excluded from the calibration reconstructs the mean and seasonal amplitude of the actual recorded SST to within 0.3°C. Applying a traditional, nongrowth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration derived from a modern Montastrea to the Sr/Ca ratios of a conspecific coral that grew during the early Little Ice Age (LIA) (400 years B.P.) suggests that Caribbean SSTs were 〉5°C cooler than today. Conversely, application of our growth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration to Sr/Ca ratios derived from the LIA coral indicates that SSTs during the 5-year period analyzed were within error (±1.4°C) of modern values.
    Description: This work was funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) grant OCE- 0402728, the WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute, and an NSF Graduate Student Fellowship.
    Keywords: Coral ; Strontium/calcium ; Growth rate
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 27 (2012): PA2207, doi:10.1029/2011PA002244.
    Description: At the peak of the previous interglacial period, North Atlantic and subpolar climate shared many features in common with projections of our future climate, including warmer-than-present conditions and a diminished Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Here we portray changes in North Atlantic hydrography linked with Greenland climate during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e using (sub)centennially sampled records of planktonic foraminiferal isotopes and assemblage counts and ice-rafted debris counts, as well as modern analog technique and Mg/Ca-based paleothermometry. We use the core MD03-2664 recovered from a high accumulation rate site (∼34 cm/kyr) on the Eirik sediment drift (57°26.34′N, 48°36.35′W). The results indicate that surface waters off southern Greenland were ∼3–5°C warmer than today during early MIS 5e. These anomalously warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) prevailed until the isotopic peak of MIS 5e when they were interrupted by a cooling event beginning at ∼126 kyr BP. This interglacial cooling event is followed by a gradual warming with SSTs subsequently plateauing just below early MIS 5e values. A planktonic δ18O minimum during the cooling event indicates that marked freshening of the surface waters accompanied the cooling. We suggest that switches in the subpolar gyre hydrography occurred during a warmer climate, involving regional changes in freshwater fluxes/balance and East Greenland Current influence in the study area. The nature of these hydrographic transitions suggests that they are most likely related to large-scale circulation dynamics, potentially amplified by GIS meltwater influences.
    Description: This work is a contribution of the European Science Foundation EuroMARC program, through the AMOCINT project, funded through grants from the Research Council of Norway (RCN) and contributes to EU-FP7 IP Past4Future. N. Irvalı was additionally funded by an ESF EUROCORES Short-term Visit grant and a RCN Leiv Eiriksson mobility grant to support research stays at the University of Edinburgh, UK, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA, respectively, during which parts of the data for this paper were acquired. U. Ninnemann was funded by a University of Bergen Meltzer research grant.
    Description: 2012-11-12
    Keywords: Eirik Drift ; MIS 5e ; North Atlantic ; Last interglacial ; Multiproxy
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 25 (2010): PA4101, doi:10.1029/2010PA001962.
    Description: Paleoceanographic studies using benthic foraminiferal Cd as a nutrient tracer have provided a robust means of reconstructing glacial Atlantic Ocean water mass geometry, but a paucity of data from the South Atlantic above 1200 m has limited investigation of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) configuration and formation. A new Cd depth profile from Brazil margin sediments suggests that AAIW penetrated northward at 1100 m to at least 27°S in the glacial Atlantic. It exhibited substantially reduced δ13Cas values, confirming preliminary evidence that this AAIW was unique to the glacial Atlantic and that it formed differently than today, with less atmospheric contact.
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Last glacial maximum ; Atlantic Ocean ; AAIW
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 26 (2011): PA2206, doi:10.1029/2010PA002038.
    Description: Western subtropical North Atlantic oceanic and atmospheric circulations connect tropical and subpolar climates. Variations in these circulations can generate regional climate anomalies that are not reflected in Northern Hemisphere averages. Assessing the significance of anthropogenic climate change at regional scales requires proxy records that allow recent trends to be interpreted in the context of long-term regional variability. We present reconstructions of Gulf Stream sea surface temperature (SST) and hydrographic variability during the past two millennia based on the magnesium/calcium ratio and oxygen isotopic composition of planktic foraminifera preserved in two western subtropical North Atlantic sediment cores. Reconstructed SST suggests low-frequency variability of ∼1°C during an interval that includes the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). A warm interval near 1250 A.D. is distinct from regional and hemispheric temperature, possibly reflecting regional variations in ocean-atmosphere heat flux associated with changes in atmospheric circulation (e.g., the North Atlantic Oscillation) or the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Seawater δ 18O, which is marked by a fresher MCA and a more saline LIA, covaries with meridional migrations of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone. The northward advection of tropical salinity anomalies by mean surface currents provides a plausible mechanism linking Carolina Slope and tropical Atlantic hydrology.
    Description: This study was supported by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s Ocean and Climate Change Institute (OCCI) and by the National Science Foundation.
    Keywords: North Atlantic ; Regional paleoclimate ; LIA ; MCA ; NAO
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 27 (2012): PA3231, doi:10.1029/2012PA002313.
    Description: Accurate low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) records that predate the instrumental era are needed to put recent warming in the context of natural climate variability and to evaluate the persistence of lower frequency climate variability prior to the instrumental era and the possible influence of anthropogenic climate change on this variability. Here we present a 235-year-long SST reconstruction based on annual growth rates (linear extension) of three colonies of the Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea sampled at two sites on the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, located within the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP). AWP SSTs vary in concert the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a basin-wide, quasiperiodic (∼60–80 years) oscillation of North Atlantic SSTs. We demonstrate that the annual linear growth rates of all three coral colonies are significantly inversely correlated with SST. We calibrate annual linear growth rates to SST between 1900 and 1960 AD. The linear correlation coefficient over the calibration period is r = −0.77 and −0.66 over the instrumental record (1860–2008 AD). We apply our calibration to annual linear growth rates to extend the SST record to 1775 AD and show that multidecadal SST variability has been a persistent feature of the AWP, and likely, of the North Atlantic over this time period. Our results imply that tropical Atlantic SSTs remained within 1°C of modern values during the past 225 years, consistent with a previous reconstruction based on coral growth rates and with most estimates based on the Mg/Ca of planktonic foraminifera from marine sediments.
    Description: Funding was provided by a scholarship to L.F.V.B. from ‘Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología’ (CONACyT-Mexico), by CONACyT projects 104358 and 23749 to P.B., and by NSF OCE-0926986 to A.L.C. and D.W.O.
    Description: 2013-03-29
    Keywords: Atlantic Warm Pool ; Atlantic multidecadal variability ; Little Ice Age ; Sr/Ca ; Coral ; Sea surface temperature
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 32 (2017): 1036–1053, doi:10.1002/2017PA003092.
    Description: Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) plays important roles in the global climate system and the global ocean nutrient and carbon cycles. However, it is unclear how AAIW responds to global climate changes. In particular, neodymium isotopic composition (εNd) reconstructions from different locations from the tropical Atlantic have led to a debate on the relationship between northward penetration of AAIW into the tropical Atlantic and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability during the last deglaciation. We resolve this controversy by studying the transient oceanic evolution during the last deglaciation using a neodymium-enabled ocean model. Our results suggest a coherent response of AAIW and AMOC: when AMOC weakens, the northward penetration and transport of AAIW decrease while its depth and thickness increase. Our study highlights that as part of the return flow of the North Atlantic Deep Water, the northward penetration of AAIW in the Atlantic is determined predominately by AMOC intensity. Moreover, the inconsistency among different tropical Atlantic εNd reconstructions is reconciled by considering their corresponding core locations and depths, which were influenced by different water masses in the past. The very radiogenic water from the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, which was previously overlooked in the interpretations of deglacial εNd variability, can be transported to shallow layers during active AMOC and modulates εNd in the tropical Atlantic. Changes in the AAIW core depth must also be considered. Thus, interpretation of εNd reconstructions from the tropical Atlantic is more complicated than suggested in previous studies.
    Description: NSF P2C2. Grant Numbers: NSF1401778, NSF1401802 DOE Grant Number: DE-SC0006744; NSFC Grant Numbers: 41630527, 41130105; Swiss National Science Foundation; WHOI Investing in Science Program; U.S. DOE the RGCM program; LDRD
    Description: 2018-04-24
    Keywords: AAIW ; AMOC ; Deglacial ; Neodymium isotope ; Paleocirculation tracer
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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