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  • Nitrogen fixation  (22)
  • Springer  (22)
  • 1980-1984  (22)
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  • Springer  (22)
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Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Legumes ; Nitrogen fixation ; Nodulation ; Winged beans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Only legumes of the cowpea cross-inoculation group, including the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) were found to form nodules in a temperate zone soil with no previous history of legume cropping. Isolates from root nodules from uninoculated winged beans grown in the field only nodulated legumes in the cowpea cross-inoculation group.Rhizobium japonicum formed ineffective nodules with the winged bean.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Growth ; Nematicide ; Nitrogen fixation ; Nodulation ; Peanut ; Rhizobium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The effect of two granular nematicidesviz. oxamyl and fenamiphos, on the nodulation and growth of Rhizobium inoculatedArachis hypogaea L. was studied in glasshouse and field trials. In the glasshouse trial at the suggested rates of application shoot fresh weight was significantly reduced by oxamyl whilst root fresh weight was similarly affected by fenamiphos. In the field trial vegetative growth and plant emergence were significantly reduced by both nematicides. Nodulation at the higher rates of application was increased by both oxamyl and fenamiphos whilst oxamyl caused a significant increase in pod number at the highest rate of application.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Ammonia assimilation ; Lichen symbioses ; Nitrogen fixation ; 15N kinetics ; Peltigera canina
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract On following N2-incorporation and subsequent metabolism in the lichen Peltigera canina using 15N as tracer, it was found, over a 30 min period, that greatest initial labelling was into NH 4 + followed by glutamate and the amide-N of glutamine. Labelling of the amino-N of glutamine, aspartate and alanine increased slowly. Pulse-chase experiments using 15N confirmed this pattern. On inhibiting the GS-GOGAT pathway using l-methionine-dl-sulphoximine and azaserine, 15N enrichment of glutamate, alanine and aspartate continued although labelling of glutamine was undetectable. From this and enzymic data, NH 4 + assimilation in the P. canina thallus appears to proceed via GS-GOGAT in the cyanobacterium and via GDH in the fungus; aminotransferases were present in both partners. The cyanobacterium assimilated 44% of the 15N2 fixed; the remainder was liberated almost exclusively as NH 4 + and then assimilated by fungal GDH.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Rhizobium trifolii ; Symbiosis ; Nodulation ; Nitrogen fixation ; Symbiotic genes ; Reiterated sequences ; Plasmid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A Rhizobium trifolii symbiotic plasmid specific gene library was constructed and the physical organisation of regions homologous to nifHDK, nifA and nod genes was determined. These symbiotic gene regions were localised to u 25 kb region on the sym-plasmid, pPN1. In addition four copies of a reiterated sequence were identified on this plasmid, with one copy adjacent to nifH. No rearrangement of these reiterated sequences was observed between R. trifolii bacterial and bacteroid DNA. Analysis of a deletion derivative of pPN1 showed that these sequences were spread over a 110 kb region to the left of nifA.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Nitrogen fixation ; Regulation ; Guanosine 5′-diphosphate 3′-diphosphate (ppGpp)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Addition of ammonium to N2 fixing cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Clostridium pasteurianum rapidly reduced the intracellular levels of guanosine 5′-diphosphate 3′-diphosphate (ppGpp) by 70–90%. This change might reflect a regulatory role of ppGpp in nitrogen metabolism.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Azotobacter vinelandii ; Continuous culture ; Oxygen control ; Nitrogen fixation ; Respiratory protection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Azotobacter vinelandii strain OP was grown in continuous culture at various dissolved oxygen concentrations of air (100% air saturation of the medium=225 ±14 μM O2). Sucrose was added as carbon source and either dinitrogen or ammonia as nitrogen sources. Irrespective of the nitrogen source steady state cultures showed the following general responses with dissolved oxygen concentrations increasing from about 1% to 30% air saturation: (i) cell protein levels, (ii) the amount of cell protein formed per sucrose consumed as well as (iii) nitrogenase activity decreased by at least a factor of two while (iv) cellular respiration increased. At higher oxygen concentrations the parameters changed only slightly, if at all. Increasing the sucrose concentration in the inflowing medium (s R) from 3 g/l to 15 g/l increased the total level of cellular respiration with nitrogen-fixing cultures but was more pronounced with ammonium-assimilating cultures. With nitrogen-fixing cultures cell protein levels increased five-fold while the ratio of protein formed per sucrose consumed as well as cellular nitrogenase activity remained unaffected. With ammonium-assimilating cultures the cell protein level was only doubled and the level of cell protein formed per sucrose consumed was decreased at the higher s R. Increasing the dilution rate at a constant oxygen concentration of 45% air saturation resulted in an almost parallel increase of both cellular respiratory and nitrogenase activity at low and moderate dilution rates. At high dilution rates nitrogenase activity increased steeply over the respiratory activity. Nitrogen-fixing cultures adapted to various oxygen concentrations were subjected to oxygen stress by increasing the oxygen concentration for 7 min. In all cases, this resulted in a complete inhibition (‘switch-off’) of nitrogenase activity. Upon restoration of the original oxygen concentration nitrogenase activity returned to a decreased level. The discussion arrives at the conclusion that some of the results are incompatible with the concept of respiratory protection of nitrogenase.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Hydrogen production ; Nitrogen fixation ; Hydrogen recycling ; Hydrogenase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mutants of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata lacking uptake hydrogenase activity have been isolated among those unable to grow photoautotrophically. Studies with these mutants showed increases in nitrogenase mediated H2 production from all substrates tested. In addition, photosynthetic synthetic growth on N2 with malate as carbon source was not affeced by the block in H2 uptake even under low light. Under these growth conditions hydrogen was observed to accumulate in mutant but not in wild-type cultures. This finding suggested that H2 was evolved by nitrogenase during N2 fixation by this photosynthetic bacterium and was efficiently recycled in the wild type.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Planta 152 (1981), S. 544-552 
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Ammonium assimilation ; Lichens ; Nitrogen fixation ; Peltigera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Nostoc in the cephalodia of the lichen Peltigera aphthosa Willd. fixed 15N2 and the bulk of the nitrogen fixed was continuously transferred from it to its eukaryotic partners (a fungus and a green alga, Coccomyxa sp.). Kinetic studies carried out over the first 30 min, after exposure of isolated cephalodia to 15N2, showed that highest initial 15N2-labelling was into NH 4 + . After 12 min little further increase in the NH 4 + label occurred while that in the amide group of glutamine and in glutamate continued to increase. The 15N-labelling of the amino group of glutamine and of aspartate increased more slowly, followed by an increase in the labelling of alanine. When total incorporation of 15N-label was calculated, the overall pattern was found to be rather similar except that, throughout the experiment, the total 15N incorporated into glutamate was about six times greater than that into the amide group of glutamine. Pulse chase experiments, in which 14N2 was added to cephalodia previously exposed to 15N2, showed that the NH 4 + pool rapidly became depleted of 15N-label, followed by decreases in the labelling of glutamate, the amide group of glutamine and aspartate. The 15N-labelling of alanine, however, continued to increase for a period. When isolated cephalodia were treated with L-methionine-SR-sulphoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2), and azaserine, an inhibitor of glutamate synthase (EC 2.6.1.53), there was no detectable labelling in glutamine although the 15N-labelling of glutamate increased unimpaired. On treating the cephalodia with amino-oxyacetate, an inhibitor of aminotransferase activity, the alanine pool decreased. Evidence was obtained that glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase were located in the Nostoc, and that glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.4) and various amino-transferases were located in the cephalodial fungus. Possible implications of these findings are discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Ineffective nodules ; Medicago laciniata ; Nitrogen fixation ; Nodulation ; Root temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Medicago laciniata, an annual leguminous plant of Saharo-Sindian origin, is particularly refractory to root nodulation by most strains ofRhizobium meliloti. Using a series of such bacterial strains belonging to the 8 groups of Brockwell and Hely, and a variety of environmental conditions, it was noted that several normally non-nodulating strains (at 20°C) produced ineffective nodules at root temperatures of 24°C to 28°C. Nodulation at 20°C failed to occur in the presence of a wide variety of test compounds and physical conditions. No phytoalexins or anti-Rhizobium growth inhibitors were isolated from inoculated root tissue at any temperature. Temperature shift experiments indicated no infection of the root hairs at 20°C, and infection threads produced at the permissive root temperature failed to elongate after transfer to 20°C. However, if meristematic activity had been initiated in the inner root-cortical cells as a result of infection thread penetration at 28°C, no blockage of nodule maturation occurred upon subsequent transfer to 20°C root temperature. Nodules produced at 28°C were completely devoid of nitrogenase activity, although the apical (but not the distal) regions contained normal-appearing bacteriods, surrounded by enclosing membranes, and possessed a fully functional leghaemoglobin. A shortage of metabolic energy did not appear to be involved in the ineffective response. A hypothesis to explain the nodulation phenomenon observed was based on the observation in the roots of 2 factors present at 20°C but not at 28°C.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Aluminium toxicity ; Nitrogen fixation ; Nodulation ; Stylosanthes hamata ; Stylosanthes humilis ; Stylosanthes scabra
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Effects of three solution aluminium concentrations (0, 25, and 100μM) on nitrogen fixation by well-nodulated plants ofStylosanthes hamata, Stylosanthes humilis andStylosanthes scabra are reported. Plants were inoculated with Rhizobium CB756 and grown for 21 days in an aluminium-free nutrient solution at pH 5.3 before imposition of the aluminium treatments. Nitrogen fixation was measured both by the increase in total nitrogen content of the plants and acetylene reduction in roots of plants harvested at 10 and 20 days after imposition of the aluminium treatments. Solution aluminium concentrations as high as 100μM, had no detrimental effect on nitrogen fixation in any species.
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