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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Nitrogen ; Photosynthesis (control analysis) ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of nitrogen supply during growth on the contribution of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) to the control of photosynthesis was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transgenic plants transformed with antisense rbcS to produce a series of plants with a progressive decrease in the amount of Rubisco were used to allow the calculation of the flux-control coefficient of Rubisco for photosynthesis (CR). Several points emerged from the data: (i) The strength of Rubisco control of photosynthesis, as measured by CR, was altered by changes in the short-term environmental conditions. Generally, CR was increased in conditions of increased irradiance or decreased CO2. (ii) The amount of Rubisco in wild-type plants was reduced as the nitrogen supply during growth was reduced and this was associated with an increase in CR. This implied that there was a specific reduction in the amount of Rubisco compared with other components of the photosynthetic machinery. (iii) Plants grown with low nitrogen and which had genetically reduced levels of Rubisco had a higher chlorophyll content and a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio than wild-type plants. This indicated that the nitrogen made available by genetically reducing the amount of Rubisco had been re-allocated to other cellular components including light-harvesting and electron-transport proteins. It is argued that there is a “luxury” additional investment of nitrogen into Rubisco in tobacco plants grown in high nitrogen, and that Rubisco can also be considered a nitrogen-store, all be it one where the opportunity cost of the nitrogen storage is higher than in a non-functional storage protein (i.e. it allows for a slightly higher water-use efficiency and for photosynthesis to respond to temporarily high irradiance).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Carbohydrate ; Growth ; Nitrogen ; Phaseolus lunatus ; Storage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Growth, photosynthesis, and storage of nitrogen (N) and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) of a perennial wild type and an annual cultivar of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) were examined at different light intensities and N supplies. Relative growth rate and photosynthesis increased with light and N availability. N limitation enhanced biomass allocation into root rather than into shoot, while light limitation enhanced growth of leaf area. The TNC concentrations increased with light intensity and thus with photosynthesis, while the concentrations of organic N and nitrate decreased. Increasing N supply had the opposite effect. Therefore, TNC and organic N concentrations were negatively correlated (r=−0.90). Pool size of N or TNC increased with N and light availability when either resource was non-limiting, but increased little or remained constant when either resource was limiting. Storage reached a minimum when both resources were supplied at an equal rate.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Mimicry ; Nitrogen ; Herbivory ; Mistletoe ; Australia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Leaves from many misletoe species in Australia strongly resemble those of their hosts. This cryptic mimicry has been hypothesized to be a means of reducing the likelihood of mistletoe herbivory by vertebrates. Leaf Kjeldahl nitrogen contents (a measure of reduced nitrogen and thus amines, amino acids and protein levels) of mistletoes and their hosts were measured on 48 mimetic and nonmimetic host-parasite pairs to evaluate hypotheses concerning the significance of crysis versus noncrypsis. The hypothesis that mistletoes mimicking host leaves should have higher leaf nitrogen levels than their hosts is supported; they may be gaining a selective advantage through crypsis (reduced herbivory). The second hypothesis that mistletoes which do not mimic their hosts should have lower leaf nitrogen levels than their hosts is also supported; they may be gaining a selective advantage through noncrypsis (reduced herbivory resulting from visual advertisement of their reduced nutritional status).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline, Spruce (Picea abies) ; Nitrogen ; Magnesium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A declining Picea abies (L.) Karst. stand produced as much foliage and branches as a healthy stand but less stemwood at a similar leaf area index and climate. Nutrient analyses revealed that most biomass components at the declining site had lower concentrations of calcium and magnesium, but similar nitrogen and potassium (except for lower potassium in younger needles) and higher phosphorus, manganese and aluminum than the respective components at the healthy site. Comparison of these data with the results from studies on the nutrition and growth of P. abies seedlings (Ingestad 1959) led to the conclusion that the healthy stand is in a balanced nutritional state, while trees at the declining stand have only 56% of the foliar magnesium concentration required to permit growth at a rate which could be achieved at their nitrogen status. It appears that acidic deposition, which involves an input of nitrogen and a leaching of cations from the soil, causes an imbalance in the availability of nitrogen and magnesium. Growth is eventually reduced as magnesium becomes limiting.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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