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  • Nitrogen  (3)
  • Relative growth rate  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Energy content ; Relative growth rate ; Seed weight
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Relative growth rate in radish is not influenced by initial seed weight.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 79 (1989), S. 542-550 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Bromus ; Relative growth rate ; Nitrate uptake ; Limiting external concentration ; Grasses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Two annual species of Bromus, an invader (B. hordeaceus, ex B. mollis) and a non-invader (B. intermedius), were grown for 28 days in growth chambers, at 5 and 100 μM NO 3 - in flowing nutrient solution. No differences between the two species were observed at either NO 3 - level, in terms of relative growth rate (RGR) or its components, dry matter partitioning, specific NO 3 - absorption rate, nitrogen concentration, and other characteristics of NO 3 - uptake and photosynthesis. The effects of decreasing NO 3 - concentration in the solution were mainly to decrease the NO 3 - concentration in the plants through decreased absorption rate, and to decrease the leaf area ratio through increased specific leaf mass and decreased leaf mass ratio. Organic nitrogen concentration varied little between the two treatments, which may be the reason why photosynthetic rates were not altered. Consequently, RGR was only slightly decreased in the 5-μM treatment compared to the 100-μM treatment. This is in contrast with other species, where growth is reduced at much higher NO 3 - concentrations. These discrepancies may be related to differences in RGR, since a log-linear relationship was found between RGR and the NO 3 - concentration at which growth is first reduced. In addition, a strong linear relationship was found between the RGR of these species and their maximum absorption rate for nitrate, suggesting that the growth of species with low maximum RGR may be partly regulated by nutrient uptake.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Nitrogen ; Photosynthesis (control analysis) ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of nitrogen supply during growth on the contribution of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) to the control of photosynthesis was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transgenic plants transformed with antisense rbcS to produce a series of plants with a progressive decrease in the amount of Rubisco were used to allow the calculation of the flux-control coefficient of Rubisco for photosynthesis (CR). Several points emerged from the data: (i) The strength of Rubisco control of photosynthesis, as measured by CR, was altered by changes in the short-term environmental conditions. Generally, CR was increased in conditions of increased irradiance or decreased CO2. (ii) The amount of Rubisco in wild-type plants was reduced as the nitrogen supply during growth was reduced and this was associated with an increase in CR. This implied that there was a specific reduction in the amount of Rubisco compared with other components of the photosynthetic machinery. (iii) Plants grown with low nitrogen and which had genetically reduced levels of Rubisco had a higher chlorophyll content and a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio than wild-type plants. This indicated that the nitrogen made available by genetically reducing the amount of Rubisco had been re-allocated to other cellular components including light-harvesting and electron-transport proteins. It is argued that there is a “luxury” additional investment of nitrogen into Rubisco in tobacco plants grown in high nitrogen, and that Rubisco can also be considered a nitrogen-store, all be it one where the opportunity cost of the nitrogen storage is higher than in a non-functional storage protein (i.e. it allows for a slightly higher water-use efficiency and for photosynthesis to respond to temporarily high irradiance).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Biomass allocation ; Nicotiana ; Nitrogen nutrition ; Photosynthesis ; Relative growth rate ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) ; Transgenic plant (tobacco antisense DNA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants and transgenic tobacco transformed with antisense rbcS to decrease expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) were grown at 300 mol-m−2 · s−1 irradiance and 20° C at either 0.1, 0.7 or 5 mM NH4NO3. In high nitrogen (N), growth was reduced in parallel with the inhibition of photosynthesis when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation. In limiting N, photosynthesis was reduced strongly when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation, but growth was hardly affected. At all N levels, decreased expression of Rubisco led to a decrease in the amount of starch accumulated in the leaves. There was a large increase of the specific leaf area (SLA; leaf area maintained per unit dry weight in the leaf) in plants with decreased Rubisco. Increased SLA was associated with an increased inorganic and a decreased carbon contribution to leaf structural dry weight. The increased SLA represents a more efficient investment of photosynthate with respect to maximisation of leaf area and light interception, and partly compensates for the decreased rate of photosynthesis in plants with decreased expression of Rubisco. The changes of starch content and SLA were particularly large in limiting N, when growth rate was effectively independent of the rate of photosynthesis. Increased N availability led to a large increase of the shoot/ root ratio, but only a small increase in SLA. It is argued that N availability and the availability of photosynthate both regulate storage and allocation of biomass to optimize resource utilization, but achieve this via different mechanisms.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Carbohydrate ; Growth ; Nitrogen ; Phaseolus lunatus ; Storage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Growth, photosynthesis, and storage of nitrogen (N) and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) of a perennial wild type and an annual cultivar of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) were examined at different light intensities and N supplies. Relative growth rate and photosynthesis increased with light and N availability. N limitation enhanced biomass allocation into root rather than into shoot, while light limitation enhanced growth of leaf area. The TNC concentrations increased with light intensity and thus with photosynthesis, while the concentrations of organic N and nitrate decreased. Increasing N supply had the opposite effect. Therefore, TNC and organic N concentrations were negatively correlated (r=−0.90). Pool size of N or TNC increased with N and light availability when either resource was non-limiting, but increased little or remained constant when either resource was limiting. Storage reached a minimum when both resources were supplied at an equal rate.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 70 (1986), S. 227-233 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Resource sharing ; Carbohydrates ; Water ; Nitrogen ; Fragaria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The herbaceous perennial, Fragaria chiloensis, reproduces vegetatively on coastal sand dunes in California by growth of stolons that bear rosettes. Movement of water and photosynthates through stolons integrates water and carbon metabolism of rosettes both before and after they root. New, unrooted rosettes import sufficient water and nitrogen to maintain levels near those of established rosettes; yet support of an unrooted rosette did not decrease growth of a connected, rooted sibling given abundant light, water, and soil nutrients. Under such conditions strings of unrooted rosettes with the associated stolon appeared self-sufficient for carbon; shade and drought induced import of photosynthates. New rosettes produced and maintained a limited root mass upon contact with dry sand, which could increase probability of establishment. Rooting did not induce senescence of stolons. Connection between two established rosettes prevented death by drought and shade, even when neither rosette could have survived singly. Results suggest that physiological integration of connected rosettes may increase total growth of clones of F. chiloensis through sharing of resources among ramets, especially when resource availability is changeable or patchy.
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