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  • Drosera  (2)
  • Nicotiana (photosynthesis)  (2)
  • δ15N  (2)
  • 1995-1999
  • 1990-1994  (6)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: atmospheric deposition ; δ15N ; δ34S ; forest decline ; nitrogen ; Picea abies ; stable isotopes ; sulfur
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Concentrations and natural isotope abundance of total sulfur and nitrogen as well as sulfate and nitrate concentrations were measured in needles of different age classes and in soil samples of different horizons from a healthy and a declining Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest in the Fichtelgebirge (NE Bavaria, Germany), in order to study the fate of atmospheric depositions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. The mean δ15N of the needles ranged between −3.7 and −2.1 ‰ and for δ34S a range between −0.4 and +0.9 ‰ was observed. δ34S and sulfur concentrations in the needles of both stands increased continuously with needle age and thus, were closely correlated. The δ15N values of the needles showed an initial decrease followed by an increase with needle age. The healthy stand showed more negative δ15N values in old needles than the declining stand. Nitrogen concentrations decreased with needle age. For soil samples at both sites the mean δ15N and δ34S values increased from −3 ‰ (δ15N) or +0.9 ‰ (δ34S) in the uppermost organic layer to about +4 ‰ (δ15N) or +4.5 ‰ (δ34S) in the mineral soil. This depth-dependent increase in abundance of 15N and 34S was accompanied by a decrease in total nitrogen and sulfur concentrations in the soil. δ15N values and nitrogen concentrations were closely correlated (slope −0.0061 ‰ δ15N per μmol eq N gdw −1), and δ34S values were linearly correlated with sulfur concentrations (slope −0.0576 ‰ δ34S per μmol eq S gdw −1). It follows that in the same soil samples sulfur concentrations were linearly correlated with the nitrogen concentrations (slope 0.0527), and δ34S values were linearly correlated with δ15N values (slope 0.459). A correlation of the sulfur and nitrogen isotope abundances on a Δ basis (which considers the different relative frequencies of 15N and 34S), however, revealed an isotope fractionation that was higher by a factor of 5 for sulfur than for nitrogen (slope 5.292). These correlations indicate a long term synchronous mineralization of organic nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the soil accompanied by element-specific isotope fractionations. Based on different sulfur isotope abundance of the soil (δ34S=0.9 ‰ for total sulfur of the organic layer was assumed to be equivalent to about −1.0 ‰ for soil sulfate) and of the atmospheric SO2 deposition (δ34S=2.0 ‰ at the healthy site and 2.3 ‰ at the declining site) the contribution of atmospheric SO2 to total sulfur of the needles was estimated. This contribution increased from about 20 % in current-year needles to more than 50 % in 3-year-old needles. The proportion of sulfur from atmospheric deposition was equivalent to the age dependent sulfate accumulation in the needles. In contrast to the accumulation of atmospheric sulfur compounds nitrogen compounds from atmospheric deposition were metabolized and were used for growth. The implications of both responses to atmospheric deposition are discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Light climate ; Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Photosynthesis ; Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant (tobacco, antisense DNA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants transformed with ‘antisense’ rbcS to decrease the expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) have been used to investigate the contribution of Rubisco to the control of photosynthesis in plants growing at different irradiances. Tobacco plants were grown in controlled-climate chambers under ambient CO2 at 20°C at 100, 300 and 750 μmol·m−2·s−1 irradiance, and at 28°C at 100, 300 and 1000 μmol·m−2·s−1 irradiance. (i) Measurement of photosynthesis under ambient conditions showed that the flux control coefficient of Rubisco (C infRubisco supA ) was very low (0.01–0.03) at low growth irradiance, and still fairly low (0.24–0.27) at higher irradiance. (ii) Short-term changes in the irradiance used to measure photosynthesis showed that C infRubisco supA increases as incident irradiance rises, (iii) When low-light (100 μmol·m−2·s−1)-grown plants are exposed to high (750–1000 μmol·m−2·s−1) irradiance, Rubisco is almost totally limiting for photosynthesis in wild types. However, when high-light-grown leaves (750–1000 μmol·m−2·s−1) are suddenly exposed to high and saturating irradiance (1500–2000 μmol·m−2·s−1), C infRubisco supA remained relatively low (0.23–0.33), showing that in saturating light Rubisco only exerts partial control over the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis in “sun” leaves; apparently additional factors are co-limiting photosynthetic performance, (iv) Growth of plants at high irradiance led to a small decrease in the percentage of total protein found in the insoluble (thylakoid fraction), and a decrease of chlorophyll, relative to protein or structural leaf dry weight. As a consequence of this change, high-irradiance-grown leaves illuminated at growth irradiance avoided an inbalance between the “light” reactions and Rubisco; this was shown by the low value of C infRubisco supA (see above) and by measurements showing that non-photochemical quenching was low, photochemical quenching high, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation was low at the growth irradiance. In contrast, when a leaf adapted to low irradiance was illuminated at a higher irradiance, Rubisco exerted more control, non-photochemical quenching was higher, photochemical quenching was lower, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation was higher than in a leaf which had grown at that irradiance. We conclude that changes in leaf composition allow the leaf to avoid a one-sided limitation by Rubisco and, hence, overexcitation and overreduction of the thylakoids in high-irradiance growth conditions, (v) ‘Antisense’ plants with less Rubisco contained a higher content of insoluble (thylakoid) protein and chlorophyll, compared to total protein or structural leaf dry weight. They also showed a higher rate of photosynthesis than the wild type, when measured at an irradiance below that at which the plant had grown. We propose that N-allocation in low light is not optimal in tobacco and that genetic manipulation to decrease Rubisco may, in some circumstances, increase photosynthetic performance in low light.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Nitrogen ; Photosynthesis (control analysis) ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of nitrogen supply during growth on the contribution of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) to the control of photosynthesis was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transgenic plants transformed with antisense rbcS to produce a series of plants with a progressive decrease in the amount of Rubisco were used to allow the calculation of the flux-control coefficient of Rubisco for photosynthesis (CR). Several points emerged from the data: (i) The strength of Rubisco control of photosynthesis, as measured by CR, was altered by changes in the short-term environmental conditions. Generally, CR was increased in conditions of increased irradiance or decreased CO2. (ii) The amount of Rubisco in wild-type plants was reduced as the nitrogen supply during growth was reduced and this was associated with an increase in CR. This implied that there was a specific reduction in the amount of Rubisco compared with other components of the photosynthetic machinery. (iii) Plants grown with low nitrogen and which had genetically reduced levels of Rubisco had a higher chlorophyll content and a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio than wild-type plants. This indicated that the nitrogen made available by genetically reducing the amount of Rubisco had been re-allocated to other cellular components including light-harvesting and electron-transport proteins. It is argued that there is a “luxury” additional investment of nitrogen into Rubisco in tobacco plants grown in high nitrogen, and that Rubisco can also be considered a nitrogen-store, all be it one where the opportunity cost of the nitrogen storage is higher than in a non-functional storage protein (i.e. it allows for a slightly higher water-use efficiency and for photosynthesis to respond to temporarily high irradiance).
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 82 (1990), S. 427-429 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Insectivorous plants ; Insect capture ; Leaf growth ; Nitrogen storage ; Drosera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Rates of insect capture increased with leaf area in the insectivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia, and growth of new leaves was related to insect capture. However, increased leaf growth was counterbalanced by leaf abscission which was in turn related to insect capture and leaf growth. Leaf loss equaled leaf growth in plants having natural rate of insect capture. A large proportion of the nitrogen gain from prey was stored in the hypocotyl; it was estimated from feeding experiments that about 24% to 30% of the nitrogen stored in the hypocotyl after winter originated from insect capture in the previous season. The effect of insect capture is discussed in relation to the life cycle of Drosera.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: δ13C ; δ15N ; Nitrogen assimilation ; Forest decline ; Picea abies ; Stable isotopes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Natural carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in different compartments (needles and twigs of different ages and crown positions, litter, understorey vegetation, roots and soils of different horizons) on 5 plots of a healthy and on 8 plots of a declining Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest in the Fichtelgebirge (NE Bavaria, Germany), which has recently been described in detail (Oren et al. 1988a; Schulze et al. 1989). The δ13C values of needles did not differ between sites or change consistently with needle age, but did decrease from the sun-to the shade-crown. This result confirms earlier conclusions from gas exchange measurements that gaseous air pollutants did no long-lasting damage in an area where such damage was expected. Twigs (δ13C between-25.3 and-27.8‰) were significantly less depleted in 13C than needles (δ13C between-27.3 and-29.1‰), and δ13C in twigs increased consistently with age. The δ15N values of needles ranged between-2.5 and-4.1‰ and varied according to stand and age. In young needles δ15N decreased with needle age, but remained constant or increased in needles that were 2 or 3 years old. Needles from the healthy site were more depleted in 15N than those from the declining site. The difference between sites was greater in old needles than in young ones. This differentiation presumably reflects an earlier onset of nitrogen reallocation in needles of the declining stand. δ15N values in twigs were more negative than in needles (-3.5 to-5.2‰) and showed age- and stand-dependent trends that were similar to the needles. δ15N values of roots and soil samples increased at both stands with soil depth from-3.5 in the organic layer to +4‰ in the mineral soil. The δ15N values of roots from the mineral soil were different from those of twigs and needles. Roots from the shallower organic layer had values similar to twigs and needles. Thus, the bulk of the assimilated nitrogen was presumably taken up by the roots from the organic layer. The problem of separation of ammonium or nitrate use by roots from different soil horizons is discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Nitrogen isotope ratio ; Nutrition ; Insectivorous plants ; Drosera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Plants of Drosera species, neighbouring noncarnivorous plants, and arthropods on or near each Drosera sp. were collected at 11 contrasting habitat locations in SW Australia. At three of the sites clones of the rare glandless mutant form of D. erythrorhiza were collected alongside fully glandular counterparts. The δ 15N value (15N/14N natural isotope composition) of insect-free leaf and stem fractions was measured, and the data then used to estimate proportional dependence on insect N (%NdI) for the respective species and growth forms of Drosera. The data indicated lower %NdI values for rosette than for self-supporting erect or for climbing vine species. The latter two groups showed an average %NdI value close to 50%. The %NdI increased with length and biomass of climbing but not erect forms of Drosera. δ 15N values of stems were positively correlated with corresponding values for leaves of Drosera. Leaf material was on average significantly more 15N enriched than stems, possibly due to delayed transport of recent insect-derived N, or to discrimination against 15N in transfer from leaf to the rest of the plant. The comparison of δ 15N values of insects and arthropod prey, glandless and glandular plants of D. erythrorhiza indicated %NdI values of 14.3, 12.2 and 32.2 at the respective sites, while matching comparisons based on δ 15N of insect, reference plants and glandular plants proved less definitive, with only one site recording a positive %NdI (value of 10.4%) despite evidence at all sites of feeding on insects by the glandular plants. The use of the δ 15N technique for studying nutrition of carnivorous species and the ecological significance of insect feeding of different growth forms of Drosera growing in a large range of habitats is discussed.
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