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  • Mutation  (11)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (11)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2007-09-18
    Description: Antibodies play a central role in immunity by forming an interface with the innate immune system and, typically, mediate proinflammatory activity. We describe a novel posttranslational modification that leads to anti-inflammatory activity of antibodies of immunoglobulin G, isotype 4 (IgG4). IgG4 antibodies are dynamic molecules that exchange Fab arms by swapping a heavy chain and attached light chain (half-molecule) with a heavy-light chain pair from another molecule, which results in bispecific antibodies. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the third constant domain is critical for this activity. The impact of IgG4 Fab arm exchange was confirmed in vivo in a rhesus monkey model with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. IgG4 Fab arm exchange is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 antibodies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn -- Schuurman, Janine -- Losen, Mario -- Bleeker, Wim K -- Martinez-Martinez, Pilar -- Vermeulen, Ellen -- den Bleker, Tamara H -- Wiegman, Luus -- Vink, Tom -- Aarden, Lucien A -- De Baets, Marc H -- van de Winkel, Jan G J -- Aalberse, Rob C -- Parren, Paul W H I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Sep 14;317(5844):1554-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sanquin Research-AMC Landsteiner Laboratory, Department of Immunopathology, Plesmanlaan 125, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17872445" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allergens/immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antigens, CD20/immunology ; Antigens, Plant ; Autoantibodies/immunology ; Glycoproteins/immunology ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin Constant Regions/chemistry ; Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Immunoglobulin G/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains ; Macaca mulatta ; Mice ; Mutation ; Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental/immunology/prevention & control ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/immunology ; Receptors, Cholinergic/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-07-15
    Description: Human inborn errors of immunity mediated by the cytokines interleukin-17A and interleukin-17F (IL-17A/F) underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report the discovery of bi-allelic RORC loss-of-function mutations in seven individuals from three kindreds of different ethnic origins with both candidiasis and mycobacteriosis. The lack of functional RORgamma and RORgammaT isoforms resulted in the absence of IL-17A/F-producing T cells in these individuals, probably accounting for their chronic candidiasis. Unexpectedly, leukocytes from RORgamma- and RORgammaT-deficient individuals also displayed an impaired IFN-gamma response to Mycobacterium. This principally reflected profoundly defective IFN-gamma production by circulating gammadelta T cells and CD4(+)CCR6(+)CXCR3(+) alphabeta T cells. In humans, both mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and systemic immunity to Mycobacterium require RORgamma, RORgammaT, or both.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4668938/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4668938/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okada, Satoshi -- Markle, Janet G -- Deenick, Elissa K -- Mele, Federico -- Averbuch, Dina -- Lagos, Macarena -- Alzahrani, Mohammed -- Al-Muhsen, Saleh -- Halwani, Rabih -- Ma, Cindy S -- Wong, Natalie -- Soudais, Claire -- Henderson, Lauren A -- Marzouqa, Hiyam -- Shamma, Jamal -- Gonzalez, Marcela -- Martinez-Barricarte, Ruben -- Okada, Chizuru -- Avery, Danielle T -- Latorre, Daniela -- Deswarte, Caroline -- Jabot-Hanin, Fabienne -- Torrado, Egidio -- Fountain, Jeffrey -- Belkadi, Aziz -- Itan, Yuval -- Boisson, Bertrand -- Migaud, Melanie -- Arlehamn, Cecilia S Lindestam -- Sette, Alessandro -- Breton, Sylvain -- McCluskey, James -- Rossjohn, Jamie -- de Villartay, Jean-Pierre -- Moshous, Despina -- Hambleton, Sophie -- Latour, Sylvain -- Arkwright, Peter D -- Picard, Capucine -- Lantz, Olivier -- Engelhard, Dan -- Kobayashi, Masao -- Abel, Laurent -- Cooper, Andrea M -- Notarangelo, Luigi D -- Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie -- Puel, Anne -- Sallusto, Federica -- Bustamante, Jacinta -- Tangye, Stuart G -- Casanova, Jean-Laurent -- 8UL1TR000043/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272200900044C/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272200900044C/PHS HHS/ -- R37 AI095983/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37AI095983/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007512/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 7;349(6248):606-13. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4282. Epub 2015 Jul 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan. ; St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. jmarkle@rockefeller.edu jean-laurent.casanova@rockefeller.edu. ; Immunology Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia. St Vincent's Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, University of Italian Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; Department of Pediatrics, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. ; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Universidad de Valparaiso, Santiago, Chile. Department of Pediatrics, Padre Hurtado Hospital and Clinica Alemana, Santiago, Chile. ; Department of Pediatrics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ; Department of Pediatrics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Department of Pediatrics, Prince Naif Center for Immunology Research, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ; Department of Pediatrics, Prince Naif Center for Immunology Research, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ; Immunology Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia. ; Institut Curie, INSERM U932, Paris, France. ; Division of Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Caritas Baby Hospital, Post Office Box 11535, Jerusalem, Israel. ; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Universidad de Valparaiso, Santiago, Chile. ; St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France. Paris Descartes University, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. ; Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA. ; La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Radiology, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. Institute of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. ; Laboratoire Dynamique du Genome et Systeme Immunitaire, INSERM UMR 1163, Universite Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. ; Laboratoire Dynamique du Genome et Systeme Immunitaire, INSERM UMR 1163, Universite Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. Pediatric Hematology-Immunology Unit, AP-HP, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France. ; Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University and Great North Children's Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 6BE, UK. ; Laboratory of Lymphocyte Activation and Susceptibility to EBV Infection, INSERM UMR 1163, Universite Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. ; Department of Paediatric Allergy Immunology, University of Manchester, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Manchester, UK. ; St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France. Paris Descartes University, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. Pediatric Hematology-Immunology Unit, AP-HP, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France. Center for the Study of Primary Immunodeficiencies, AP-HP, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France. ; Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan. ; St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France. Paris Descartes University, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. ; Division of Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, University of Italian Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland. Center of Medical Immunology, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, University of Italian Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France. Paris Descartes University, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. Center for the Study of Primary Immunodeficiencies, AP-HP, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France. ; St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France. Paris Descartes University, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. Pediatric Hematology-Immunology Unit, AP-HP, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, NY 10065, USA. jmarkle@rockefeller.edu jean-laurent.casanova@rockefeller.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160376" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Candida albicans/*immunology ; Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous/complications/*genetics/immunology ; Cattle ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Gene Rearrangement, alpha-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor ; Humans ; Immunity/*genetics ; Interferon-gamma/immunology ; Interleukin-17/immunology ; Mice ; Mutation ; Mycobacterium bovis/immunology/isolation & purification ; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology/isolation & purification ; Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3/*genetics ; Pedigree ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics/immunology ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/genetics/immunology ; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/*genetics ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Thymus Gland/abnormalities/immunology ; Tuberculosis, Bovine/*genetics/immunology ; Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/*genetics/immunology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2009-04-25
    Description: The imprints of domestication and breed development on the genomes of livestock likely differ from those of companion animals. A deep draft sequence assembly of shotgun reads from a single Hereford female and comparative sequences sampled from six additional breeds were used to develop probes to interrogate 37,470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 497 cattle from 19 geographically and biologically diverse breeds. These data show that cattle have undergone a rapid recent decrease in effective population size from a very large ancestral population, possibly due to bottlenecks associated with domestication, selection, and breed formation. Domestication and artificial selection appear to have left detectable signatures of selection within the cattle genome, yet the current levels of diversity within breeds are at least as great as exists within humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735092/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735092/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bovine HapMap Consortium -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Taylor, Jeremy F -- Van Tassell, Curtis P -- Barendse, William -- Eversole, Kellye A -- Gill, Clare A -- Green, Ronnie D -- Hamernik, Debora L -- Kappes, Steven M -- Lien, Sigbjorn -- Matukumalli, Lakshmi K -- McEwan, John C -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Schnabel, Robert D -- Weinstock, George M -- Wheeler, David A -- Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo -- Boettcher, Paul J -- Caetano, Alexandre R -- Garcia, Jose Fernando -- Hanotte, Olivier -- Mariani, Paola -- Skow, Loren C -- Sonstegard, Tad S -- Williams, John L -- Diallo, Boubacar -- Hailemariam, Lemecha -- Martinez, Mario L -- Morris, Chris A -- Silva, Luiz O C -- Spelman, Richard J -- Mulatu, Woudyalew -- Zhao, Keyan -- Abbey, Colette A -- Agaba, Morris -- Araujo, Flabio R -- Bunch, Rowan J -- Burton, James -- Gorni, Chiara -- Olivier, Hanotte -- Harrison, Blair E -- Luff, Bill -- Machado, Marco A -- Mwakaya, Joel -- Plastow, Graham -- Sim, Warren -- Smith, Timothy -- Thomas, Merle B -- Valentini, Alessio -- Williams, Paul -- Womack, James -- Woolliams, John A -- Liu, Yue -- Qin, Xiang -- Worley, Kim C -- Gao, Chuan -- Jiang, Huaiyang -- Moore, Stephen S -- Ren, Yanru -- Song, Xing-Zhi -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Hernandez, Ryan D -- Muzny, Donna M -- Patil, Shobha -- San Lucas, Anthony -- Fu, Qing -- Kent, Matthew P -- Vega, Richard -- Matukumalli, Aruna -- McWilliam, Sean -- Sclep, Gert -- Bryc, Katarzyna -- Choi, Jungwoo -- Gao, Hong -- Grefenstette, John J -- Murdoch, Brenda -- Stella, Alessandra -- Villa-Angulo, Rafael -- Wright, Mark -- Aerts, Jan -- Jann, Oliver -- Negrini, Riccardo -- Goddard, Mike E -- Hayes, Ben J -- Bradley, Daniel G -- Barbosa da Silva, Marcos -- Lau, Lilian P L -- Liu, George E -- Lynn, David J -- Panzitta, Francesca -- Dodds, Ken G -- R01 GM083606/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083606-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Apr 24;324(5926):528-32. doi: 10.1126/science.1167936.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19390050" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breeding ; Cattle/*genetics ; Female ; Gene Frequency ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Population Density
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-20
    Description: Most cancer cells are characterized by aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes. We have identified a clue to the mechanistic origins of aneuploidy through integrative genomic analyses of human tumors. A diverse range of tumor types were found to harbor deletions or inactivating mutations of STAG2, a gene encoding a subunit of the cohesin complex, which regulates the separation of sister chromatids during cell division. Because STAG2 is on the X chromosome, its inactivation requires only a single mutational event. Studying a near-diploid human cell line with a stable karyotype, we found that targeted inactivation of STAG2 led to chromatid cohesion defects and aneuploidy, whereas in two aneuploid human glioblastoma cell lines, targeted correction of the endogenous mutant alleles of STAG2 led to enhanced chromosomal stability. Thus, genetic disruption of cohesin is a cause of aneuploidy in human cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374335/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374335/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Solomon, David A -- Kim, Taeyeon -- Diaz-Martinez, Laura A -- Fair, Joshlean -- Elkahloun, Abdel G -- Harris, Brent T -- Toretsky, Jeffrey A -- Rosenberg, Steven A -- Shukla, Neerav -- Ladanyi, Marc -- Samuels, Yardena -- James, C David -- Yu, Hongtao -- Kim, Jung-Sik -- Waldman, Todd -- CA097257/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA133662/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA138212/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA169345/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA115699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21CA143282/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Z01 HG200337-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 19;333(6045):1039-43. doi: 10.1126/science.1203619.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21852505" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Aneuploidy ; Antigens, Nuclear/*genetics/*physiology ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Line ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Chromatids/physiology ; *Chromosomal Instability ; Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics ; Female ; Gene Deletion ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Silencing ; Gene Targeting ; Glioblastoma/*genetics ; Humans ; Karyotyping ; Male ; Melanoma/genetics ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Sarcoma, Ewing/genetics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2004-01-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez-Perez, Enrique -- Moore, Graham -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Jan 2;303(5654):49-50.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14704418" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromatids/physiology ; *Chromosome Pairing ; Chromosomes, Plant/*physiology ; DNA, Plant/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Genes, Plant ; *Meiosis ; Mutation ; Plant Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Rad51 Recombinase ; *Recombination, Genetic ; Synaptonemal Complex/metabolism ; Telomere/physiology ; Zea mays/*genetics/physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2005-11-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez Arias, Alfonso -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Nov 25;310(5752):1284-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK. ama11@hermes.cam.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16311322" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus ; Animals ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Drosophila Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics/*metabolism ; Endocytosis ; Frizzled Receptors ; Models, Neurological ; Mutation ; Neuromuscular Junction/*metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*metabolism ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled ; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/chemistry/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Wnt1 Protein
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-07-25
    Description: A fundamental function of CD4+ helper T (T(H)) cells is the regulation of B cell-mediated humoral immunity. Development of T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells that provide help to B cells is mediated by the cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-21 but is independent of TH1, TH2, and TH17 effector cell lineages. Here, we characterize the function of Bcl6, a transcription factor selectively expressed in T(FH) cells. Bcl6 expression is regulated by interleukin-6 and interleukin-21. Bcl6 overexpression induced T(FH)-related gene expression and inhibited other T(H) lineage cell differentiation in a DNA binding-dependent manner. Moreover, Bcl6 deficiency in T cells resulted in impaired T(FH) cell development and germinal center reactions, and altered production of other effector T cell subsets. Our data thus illustrate that Bcl6 is required for programming of T(FH) cell generation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2857334/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2857334/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nurieva, Roza I -- Chung, Yeonseok -- Martinez, Gustavo J -- Yang, Xuexian O -- Tanaka, Shinya -- Matskevitch, Tatyana D -- Wang, Yi-Hong -- Dong, Chen -- R01 AI050746/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI050746-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI050761/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI050761-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI050761-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI050761-07A1/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI083761/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR050772/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR050772-07/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR050772-08/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 21;325(5943):1001-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1176676. Epub 2009 Jul 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. rnurieva@mdanderson.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628815" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Formation ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Lineage ; Cytokines/immunology/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Germinal Center/cytology/*immunology ; Immunoglobulins/biosynthesis ; Interleukin-6/immunology/metabolism ; Interleukins/immunology/metabolism ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Mutation ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology/*immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/cytology/*immunology ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2007-07-28
    Description: The construction of multicellular organisms depends on stem cells-cells that can both regenerate and produce daughter cells that undergo differentiation. Here, we show that the gaseous messenger ethylene modulates cell division in the cells of the quiescent center, which act as a source of stem cells in the seedling root. The cells formed through these ethylene-induced divisions express quiescent center-specific genes and can repress differentiation of surrounding initial cells, showing that quiescence is not required for these cells to signal to adjacent stem cells. We propose that ethylene is part of a signaling pathway that modulates cell division in the quiescent center in the stem cell niche during the postembryonic development of the root system.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ortega-Martinez, Olga -- Pernas, Monica -- Carol, Rachel J -- Dolan, Liam -- BBS/E/J/00000168/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Jul 27;317(5837):507-10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17656722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids, Cyclic/metabolism/pharmacology ; Arabidopsis/*cytology/genetics/growth & development/metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Cell Differentiation ; *Cell Division ; Ethylenes/biosynthesis/*metabolism ; Gene Expression ; Genes, Plant ; Glycine/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism ; Mutation ; Naphthaleneacetic Acids/pharmacology ; Plant Roots/*cytology/growth & development/metabolism ; Protein Kinases/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Stem Cells/*cytology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2008-07-19
    Description: The large majority of antibiotics currently used for treating infections and the antibiotic resistance genes acquired by human pathogens each have an environmental origin. Recent work indicates that the function of these elements in their environmental reservoirs may be very distinct from the "weapon-shield" role they play in clinical settings. Changes in natural ecosystems, including the release of large amounts of antimicrobials, might alter the population dynamics of microorganisms, including selection of resistance, with consequences for human health that are difficult to predict.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez, Jose L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Jul 18;321(5887):365-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1159483.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), Darwin 3, Campus UAM, Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid, and CIBERESP, Spain. jlmtnez@cnb.csic.es〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18635792" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents/*metabolism/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Bacteria/*drug effects/genetics/metabolism ; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/microbiology ; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics ; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/*genetics ; *Ecosystem ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal ; *Genes, Bacterial ; Humans ; Mutation ; Soil Microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-04-11
    Description: Mountain gorillas are an endangered great ape subspecies and a prominent focus for conservation, yet we know little about their genomic diversity and evolutionary past. We sequenced whole genomes from multiple wild individuals and compared the genomes of all four Gorilla subspecies. We found that the two eastern subspecies have experienced a prolonged population decline over the past 100,000 years, resulting in very low genetic diversity and an increased overall burden of deleterious variation. A further recent decline in the mountain gorilla population has led to extensive inbreeding, such that individuals are typically homozygous at 34% of their sequence, leading to the purging of severely deleterious recessive mutations from the population. We discuss the causes of their decline and the consequences for their future survival.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4668944/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4668944/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xue, Yali -- Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Sudmant, Peter H -- Narasimhan, Vagheesh -- Ayub, Qasim -- Szpak, Michal -- Frandsen, Peter -- Chen, Yuan -- Yngvadottir, Bryndis -- Cooper, David N -- de Manuel, Marc -- Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica -- Lobon, Irene -- Siegismund, Hans R -- Pagani, Luca -- Quail, Michael A -- Hvilsom, Christina -- Mudakikwa, Antoine -- Eichler, Evan E -- Cranfield, Michael R -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Scally, Aylwyn -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 099769/Z/12/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 260372/European Research Council/International -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 10;348(6231):242-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3952. Epub 2015 Apr 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. ; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC/UPF), Parque de Investigacion Biomedica de Barcelona (PRBB), Barcelona, Catalonia 08003, Spain. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK. ; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. ; Institute of Medical Genetics, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, 40134 Bologna, Italy. ; Research and Conservation, Copenhagen Zoo, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark. ; Rwanda Development Board, KG 9 Avenue, Kigali, Rwanda. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, WA 91895, USA. ; Gorilla Doctors, Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC/UPF), Parque de Investigacion Biomedica de Barcelona (PRBB), Barcelona, Catalonia 08003, Spain. Centro Nacional de Analisis Genomico (Parc Cientific de Barcelona), Baldiri Reixac 4, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. cts@sanger.ac.uk aos21@cam.ac.uk. ; Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK. cts@sanger.ac.uk aos21@cam.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25859046" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Animals ; Biological Evolution ; DNA Copy Number Variations ; Democratic Republic of the Congo ; Endangered Species ; Female ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome ; Gorilla gorilla/classification/*genetics/physiology ; Homozygote ; *Inbreeding ; Linkage Disequilibrium ; Male ; Mutation ; Population Dynamics ; Rwanda ; Selection, Genetic ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Species Specificity ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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