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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Combinatorial chemistry ; Molecular recognition ; Functionalized bipyridine metal complexes ; Janus molecules ; Hydrogen bonding ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The functionalized ligands 1 and 2 bearing hydrogen-bonding recognition groups have been synthesized. Their assembly by metal ions such as CuI and PdII having different coordination geometries generates different receptor architectures for the binding of suitable substrates. Addition of the complementary bis(imide) Janus molecules (4-7) to [1a, 2a, CuTf] or to [1b, 2b, Pd(BF4)2] mixtures leads to a moderate selective increase of the fraction of the [(1a)2Cu]+ or [(1b)2Pd]2+ complex depending on the Janus substrate used. Largest enhancements are observed for those Janus substrates that may be expected to display highest geometrical complementarity with the two complexes. These results represent a process directed by target binding based on dynamic combinatorial chemistry.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cyclo-bis-intercaland ; Acridine units ; cis/trans-Azobenzene dicarboxylic acids ; Inclusion compounds ; X-ray structure ; Molecular recognition ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The water soluble acyclic 1 and macrocyclic 2 receptor molecules, based on acridine units, form 1:1 complexes with the cis- or trans-2,2′ and 3,3′-azobenzene dicarboxylate substrates. The stability constants of these complexes, determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy, cover a wide range from 30 to 105M-1, thus displaying very pronounced structure selectivity with respect to both substitution pattern and cis, transconfiguration. The complexes of the cyclo-bis-intercaland receptor 2 are two or three orders of magnitude more stable than those of 1. The inclusion complex of cyclo-bis-intercaland 2 with trans-3,3′- azobenzene dicarboxylate has been isolated and its structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography using synchrotron radiation, confirming the intercalation of the substrate between the acridine residues in the species formed.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Dynamic combinatorial chemistry ; Molecular recognition ; Hydrogen bonding ; Hydrazone isomerization ; Barbiturate receptor ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The selection of the receptor presenting the strongest affinity for a barbiturate substrate from a dynamic combinatorial library of constituents differing in structure and conformation/configuration is described. The gradual addition of the barbiturate to an equilibrating mixture of hydrazone isomers leads to the quantitative shift towards a single species, 3, which presents highest complementarity to the substrate and yields the supramolecular entity 3:4.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Supramolecular chemistry ; Nobel lecture ; Macrocycles ; Molecular recognition ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Supramolecular chemistry is the chemistry of the intermolecular bond, covering the structures and functions of the entities formed by association of two or more chemical species. Molecular recognition in the supermolecules formed by receptor-substrate binding rests on the principles of molecular complementarity, as found in spherical and tetrahedral recognition, linear recognition by coreceptors, metalloreceptors, amphiphilic receptors, and anion coordination. Supramolecular catalysis by receptors bearing reactive groups effects bond cleavage reactions as well as synthetic bond formation via cocatalysis. Lipophilic receptor molecules act as selective carriers for various substrates and make it possible to set up coupled transport processes linked to electron and proton gradients or to light. Whereas endoreceptors bind substrates in molecular cavities by convergent interactions, exoreceptors rely on interactions between the surfaces of the receptor and the substrate; thus new types of receptors, such as the metallonucleates, may be designed. In combination with polymolecular assemblies, receptors, carriers, and catalysts may lead to molecular and supramolecular devices, defined as structurally organized and functionally integrated chemical systems built on supramolecular architectures. Their recognition, transfer, and transformation features are analyzed specifically from the point of view of molecular devices that would operate via photons, electrons, or ions, thus defining fields of molecular photonics, electronics, and ionics. Introduction of photosensitive groups yields photoactive receptors for the design of light-conversion and charge-separation centers. Redox-active polyolefinic chains represent molecular wires for electron transfer through membranes. Tubular mesophases formed by stacking of suitable macrocyclic receptors may lead to ion channels. Molecular self-assembling occurs with acyclic ligands that form complexes of double-helical structure. Such developments in molecular and supramolecular design and engineering open perspectives towards the realization of molecular photonic, electronic, and ionic devices that would perform highly selective recognition, reaction, and transfer operations for signal and information processing at the molecular level.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Self-assembly ; Information processing ; Molecular information processing ; Molecular recognition ; Supramolecular chemistry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The selective binding of a substrate by a molecular receptor to form a supramolecular species involves molecular recognition which rests on the molecular information stored in the interacting species. The functions of supermolecules cover recognition, as well as catalysis and transport. In combination with polymolecular organization, they open ways towards molecular and supramolecular devices for information processing and signal generation. The development of such devices requires the design of molecular components performing a given function (e.g., photoactive, electroactive, ionoactive, thermoactive, or chemoactive) and suitable for assembly into an organized array. Light-conversion devices and charge-separation centers have been realized with photoactive cryptates formed by receptors containing photosensitive groups. Eleclroactive and ionoactive devices are required for carrying information via electronic and ionic signals. Redox-active polyolefinic chains, like the “caroviologens”, represent molecular wires for electron transfer through membranes. Push-pull polyolefins possess marked nonlinear optical properties. Tubular mesophases, formed by organized stacking of suitable macro-cyclic components, as well as “chundle”-type structures, based on bundles of chains grafted onto a macrocyclic support, represent approaches to ion channels. Lipophilic macrocyclic units form Langmuir-Blodgett films that may display molecular recognition at the air-water interface. Supramolecular chemistry has relied on more or less preorganized molecular receptors for effecting molecular recognition, catalysis, and transport processes. A step beyond preorganization consists in the design of systems undergoing self-organization, that is, systems capable of spontaneously generating a well-defined supramolecular architecture by self-assembling from their components under a given set of conditions. Several approaches to self-assembling systems have been pursued: the formation of helical metal complexes, the double-stranded helicates, which result from the spontaneous organization of two linear polybipyridine ligands into a double helix by binding of specific metal ions; the generation of mesophases and liquid crystalline polymers of supramolecular nature from complementary components, amounting to macroscopic expression of molecular recognition; the molecular-recognition-directed formation of ordered solid-state structures. Endowing photo-, electro-, and ionoactive components with recognition elements opens perspectives towards the design of programmed molecular and supramolecular systems capable of self-assembly into organized and functional supramolecular devices. Such systems may be able to perform highly selective operations of recognition, reaction, transfer, and structure generation for signal and information processing at the molecular and supramolecular levels.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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