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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2010-11-06
    Description: Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified 〉300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3235490/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3235490/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉International HIV Controllers Study -- Pereyra, Florencia -- Jia, Xiaoming -- McLaren, Paul J -- Telenti, Amalio -- de Bakker, Paul I W -- Walker, Bruce D -- Ripke, Stephan -- Brumme, Chanson J -- Pulit, Sara L -- Carrington, Mary -- Kadie, Carl M -- Carlson, Jonathan M -- Heckerman, David -- Graham, Robert R -- Plenge, Robert M -- Deeks, Steven G -- Gianniny, Lauren -- Crawford, Gabriel -- Sullivan, Jordan -- Gonzalez, Elena -- Davies, Leela -- Camargo, Amy -- Moore, Jamie M -- Beattie, Nicole -- Gupta, Supriya -- Crenshaw, Andrew -- Burtt, Noel P -- Guiducci, Candace -- Gupta, Namrata -- Gao, Xiaojiang -- Qi, Ying -- Yuki, Yuko -- Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja -- Cutrell, Emily -- Rosenberg, Rachel -- Moss, Kristin L -- Lemay, Paul -- O'Leary, Jessica -- Schaefer, Todd -- Verma, Pranshu -- Toth, Ildiko -- Block, Brian -- Baker, Brett -- Rothchild, Alissa -- Lian, Jeffrey -- Proudfoot, Jacqueline -- Alvino, Donna Marie L -- Vine, Seanna -- Addo, Marylyn M -- Allen, Todd M -- Altfeld, Marcus -- Henn, Matthew R -- Le Gall, Sylvie -- Streeck, Hendrik -- Haas, David W -- Kuritzkes, Daniel R -- Robbins, Gregory K -- Shafer, Robert W -- Gulick, Roy M -- Shikuma, Cecilia M -- Haubrich, Richard -- Riddler, Sharon -- Sax, Paul E -- Daar, Eric S -- Ribaudo, Heather J -- Agan, Brian -- Agarwal, Shanu -- Ahern, Richard L -- Allen, Brady L -- Altidor, Sherly -- Altschuler, Eric L -- Ambardar, Sujata -- Anastos, Kathryn -- Anderson, Ben -- Anderson, Val -- Andrady, Ushan -- Antoniskis, Diana -- Bangsberg, David -- Barbaro, Daniel -- Barrie, William -- Bartczak, J -- Barton, Simon -- Basden, Patricia -- Basgoz, Nesli -- Bazner, Suzane -- Bellos, Nicholaos C -- Benson, Anne M -- Berger, Judith -- Bernard, Nicole F -- Bernard, Annette M -- Birch, Christopher -- Bodner, Stanley J -- Bolan, Robert K -- Boudreaux, Emilie T -- Bradley, Meg -- Braun, James F -- Brndjar, Jon E -- Brown, Stephen J -- Brown, Katherine -- Brown, Sheldon T -- Burack, Jedidiah -- Bush, Larry M -- Cafaro, Virginia -- Campbell, Omobolaji -- Campbell, John -- Carlson, Robert H -- Carmichael, J Kevin -- Casey, Kathleen K -- Cavacuiti, Chris -- Celestin, Gregory -- Chambers, Steven T -- Chez, Nancy -- Chirch, Lisa M -- Cimoch, Paul J -- Cohen, Daniel -- Cohn, Lillian E -- Conway, Brian -- Cooper, David A -- Cornelson, Brian -- Cox, David T -- Cristofano, Michael V -- Cuchural, George Jr -- Czartoski, Julie L -- Dahman, Joseph M -- Daly, Jennifer S -- Davis, Benjamin T -- Davis, Kristine -- Davod, Sheila M -- DeJesus, Edwin -- Dietz, Craig A -- Dunham, Eleanor -- Dunn, Michael E -- Ellerin, Todd B -- Eron, Joseph J -- Fangman, John J W -- Farel, Claire E -- Ferlazzo, Helen -- Fidler, Sarah -- Fleenor-Ford, Anita -- Frankel, Renee -- Freedberg, Kenneth A -- French, Neel K -- Fuchs, Jonathan D -- Fuller, Jon D -- Gaberman, Jonna -- Gallant, Joel E -- Gandhi, Rajesh T -- Garcia, Efrain -- Garmon, Donald -- Gathe, Joseph C Jr -- Gaultier, Cyril R -- Gebre, Wondwoosen -- Gilman, Frank D -- Gilson, Ian -- Goepfert, Paul A -- Gottlieb, Michael S -- Goulston, Claudia -- Groger, Richard K -- Gurley, T Douglas -- Haber, Stuart -- Hardwicke, Robin -- Hardy, W David -- Harrigan, P Richard -- Hawkins, Trevor N -- Heath, Sonya -- Hecht, Frederick M -- Henry, W Keith -- Hladek, Melissa -- Hoffman, Robert P -- Horton, James M -- Hsu, Ricky K -- Huhn, Gregory D -- Hunt, Peter -- Hupert, Mark J -- Illeman, Mark L -- Jaeger, Hans -- Jellinger, Robert M -- John, Mina -- Johnson, Jennifer A -- Johnson, Kristin L -- Johnson, Heather -- Johnson, Kay -- Joly, Jennifer -- Jordan, Wilbert C -- Kauffman, Carol A -- Khanlou, Homayoon -- Killian, Robert K -- Kim, Arthur Y -- Kim, David D -- Kinder, Clifford A -- Kirchner, Jeffrey T -- Kogelman, Laura -- Kojic, Erna Milunka -- Korthuis, P Todd -- Kurisu, Wayne -- Kwon, Douglas S -- LaMar, Melissa -- Lampiris, Harry -- Lanzafame, Massimiliano -- Lederman, Michael M -- Lee, David M -- Lee, Jean M L -- Lee, Marah J -- Lee, Edward T Y -- Lemoine, Janice -- Levy, Jay A -- Llibre, Josep M -- Liguori, Michael A -- Little, Susan J -- Liu, Anne Y -- Lopez, Alvaro J -- Loutfy, Mono R -- Loy, Dawn -- Mohammed, Debbie Y -- Man, Alan -- Mansour, Michael K -- Marconi, Vincent C -- Markowitz, Martin -- Marques, Rui -- Martin, Jeffrey N -- Martin, Harold L Jr -- Mayer, Kenneth Hugh -- McElrath, M Juliana -- McGhee, Theresa A -- McGovern, Barbara H -- McGowan, Katherine -- McIntyre, Dawn -- Mcleod, Gavin X -- Menezes, Prema -- Mesa, Greg -- Metroka, Craig E -- Meyer-Olson, Dirk -- Miller, Andy O -- Montgomery, Kate -- Mounzer, Karam C -- Nagami, Ellen H -- Nagin, Iris -- Nahass, Ronald G -- Nelson, Margret O -- Nielsen, Craig -- Norene, David L -- O'Connor, David H -- Ojikutu, Bisola O -- Okulicz, Jason -- Oladehin, Olakunle O -- Oldfield, Edward C 3rd -- Olender, Susan A -- Ostrowski, Mario -- Owen, William F Jr -- Pae, Eunice -- Parsonnet, Jeffrey -- Pavlatos, Andrew M -- Perlmutter, Aaron M -- Pierce, Michael N -- Pincus, Jonathan M -- Pisani, Leandro -- Price, Lawrence Jay -- Proia, Laurie -- Prokesch, Richard C -- Pujet, Heather Calderon -- Ramgopal, Moti -- Rathod, Almas -- Rausch, Michael -- Ravishankar, J -- Rhame, Frank S -- Richards, Constance Shamuyarira -- Richman, Douglas D -- Rodes, Berta -- Rodriguez, Milagros -- Rose, Richard C 3rd -- Rosenberg, Eric S -- Rosenthal, Daniel -- Ross, Polly E -- Rubin, David S -- Rumbaugh, Elease -- Saenz, Luis -- Salvaggio, Michelle R -- Sanchez, William C -- Sanjana, Veeraf M -- Santiago, Steven -- Schmidt, Wolfgang -- Schuitemaker, Hanneke -- Sestak, Philip M -- Shalit, Peter -- Shay, William -- Shirvani, Vivian N -- Silebi, Vanessa I -- Sizemore, James M Jr -- Skolnik, Paul R -- Sokol-Anderson, Marcia -- Sosman, James M -- Stabile, Paul -- Stapleton, Jack T -- Starrett, Sheree -- Stein, Francine -- Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen -- Sterman, F Lisa -- Stone, Valerie E -- Stone, David R -- Tambussi, Giuseppe -- Taplitz, Randy A -- Tedaldi, Ellen M -- Theisen, William -- Torres, Richard -- Tosiello, Lorraine -- Tremblay, Cecile -- Tribble, Marc A -- Trinh, Phuong D -- Tsao, Alice -- Ueda, Peggy -- Vaccaro, Anthony -- Valadas, Emilia -- Vanig, Thanes J -- Vecino, Isabel -- Vega, Vilma M -- Veikley, Wenoah -- Wade, Barbara H -- Walworth, Charles -- Wanidworanun, Chingchai -- Ward, Douglas J -- Warner, Daniel A -- Weber, Robert D -- Webster, Duncan -- Weis, Steve -- Wheeler, David A -- White, David J -- Wilkins, Ed -- Winston, Alan -- Wlodaver, Clifford G -- van't Wout, Angelique -- Wright, David P -- Yang, Otto O -- Yurdin, David L -- Zabukovic, Brandon W -- Zachary, Kimon C -- Zeeman, Beth -- Zhao, Meng -- AI030914/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI068636/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069415/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069423/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069424/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069428/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069432/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069434/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069450/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069452/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069465/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069471/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069472/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069474/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069477/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069484/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069495/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069501/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069502/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069511/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069513/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069532/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI069556/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI077505/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI087145/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI25859/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI27661/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI28568/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI30914/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI34835/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI34853/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI38844/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI46370/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI68634/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI69467/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AL32782/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- K23 DA019809/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K24 AI051966/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K24 AI064086/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K24 AI064086-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K24 AI069994/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K24 AI069994-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K24 AI069994-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K24AI069994/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- KL2 RR024977/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- MH071205/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH085520/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P-30 AI27763/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P-30-AI060354/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI027763/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI027763-19/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI027763-20/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI050410/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI060354/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI060354-08/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI060354-09/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 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AI034835-07/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI034835-07S3/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI034853/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI034853-11/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI034853-12/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI038844-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI038844-04S1/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI038844-04S2/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI038844-04S3/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI046370-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI046370-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069419-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069419-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069423/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069423-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069423-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069424/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069424-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069424-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069428/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069428-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069428-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069432/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069432-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069432-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069434/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 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HHS/ -- U01 AI069484-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069495/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069495-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069495-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069501/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069501-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069501-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069502/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069502-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069502-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069511/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069511-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069511-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069513-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069513-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069532/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069532-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069532-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069556-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069556-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH085520/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH085520-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024131/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024131-06/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024131-07/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024975/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024975-04/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024975-05/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068634/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068634-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068634-07/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068636-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068636-07/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI069477/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 Dec 10;330(6010):1551-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1195271. Epub 2010 Nov 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard, Boston, MA, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21051598" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Americans/genetics ; Alleles ; Amino Acids/physiology ; *Antigen Presentation ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cohort Studies ; Disease Progression ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; *Genes, MHC Class I ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; HIV Antigens/immunology ; HIV Infections/ethnology/*genetics/*immunology/virology ; HIV Long-Term Survivors ; *HIV-1/immunology ; HLA-A Antigens/chemistry/genetics/immunology/metabolism ; HLA-B Antigens/chemistry/*genetics/immunology/metabolism ; HLA-C Antigens/chemistry/genetics/immunology/metabolism ; Haplotypes ; Hispanic Americans/genetics ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Logistic Models ; Models, Molecular ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Protein Conformation ; Viral Load
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-07-18
    Description: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder resulting from motor neuron death. Approximately 10% of cases are familial (FALS), typically with a dominant inheritance mode. Despite numerous advances in recent years, nearly 50% of FALS cases have unknown genetic aetiology. Here we show that mutations within the profilin 1 (PFN1) gene can cause FALS. PFN1 is crucial for the conversion of monomeric (G)-actin to filamentous (F)-actin. Exome sequencing of two large ALS families showed different mutations within the PFN1 gene. Further sequence analysis identified 4 mutations in 7 out of 274 FALS cases. Cells expressing PFN1 mutants contain ubiquitinated, insoluble aggregates that in many cases contain the ALS-associated protein TDP-43. PFN1 mutants also display decreased bound actin levels and can inhibit axon outgrowth. Furthermore, primary motor neurons expressing mutant PFN1 display smaller growth cones with a reduced F/G-actin ratio. These observations further document that cytoskeletal pathway alterations contribute to ALS pathogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575525/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575525/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wu, Chi-Hong -- Fallini, Claudia -- Ticozzi, Nicola -- Keagle, Pamela J -- Sapp, Peter C -- Piotrowska, Katarzyna -- Lowe, Patrick -- Koppers, Max -- McKenna-Yasek, Diane -- Baron, Desiree M -- Kost, Jason E -- Gonzalez-Perez, Paloma -- Fox, Andrew D -- Adams, Jenni -- Taroni, Franco -- Tiloca, Cinzia -- Leclerc, Ashley Lyn -- Chafe, Shawn C -- Mangroo, Dev -- Moore, Melissa J -- Zitzewitz, Jill A -- Xu, Zuo-Shang -- van den Berg, Leonard H -- Glass, Jonathan D -- Siciliano, Gabriele -- Cirulli, Elizabeth T -- Goldstein, David B -- Salachas, Francois -- Meininger, Vincent -- Rossoll, Wilfried -- Ratti, Antonia -- Gellera, Cinzia -- Bosco, Daryl A -- Bassell, Gary J -- Silani, Vincenzo -- Drory, Vivian E -- Brown, Robert H Jr -- Landers, John E -- 1R01NS050557/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- 1R01NS065847/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS050557/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RC2 NS070342/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RC2-NS070-342/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007754/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 NS052225/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000454/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 23;488(7412):499-503. doi: 10.1038/nature11280.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22801503" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actins/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis/*genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Animals ; Axons/metabolism/pathology ; Cells, Cultured ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Growth Cones/metabolism ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Jews/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Motor Neurons/cytology/metabolism ; Mutant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Mutation/*genetics ; Pedigree ; Profilins/*genetics/*metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Ubiquitination
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-02-05
    Description: X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded. It is particularly challenging to obtain large, well-diffracting crystals of membrane proteins, for which fewer than 300 unique structures have been determined despite their importance in all living cells. Here we present a method for structure determination where single-crystal X-ray diffraction 'snapshots' are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nanocrystals using femtosecond pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source. We prove this concept with nanocrystals of photosystem I, one of the largest membrane protein complexes. More than 3,000,000 diffraction patterns were collected in this study, and a three-dimensional data set was assembled from individual photosystem I nanocrystals ( approximately 200 nm to 2 mum in size). We mitigate the problem of radiation damage in crystallography by using pulses briefer than the timescale of most damage processes. This offers a new approach to structure determination of macromolecules that do not yield crystals of sufficient size for studies using conventional radiation sources or are particularly sensitive to radiation damage.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3429598/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3429598/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chapman, Henry N -- Fromme, Petra -- Barty, Anton -- White, Thomas A -- Kirian, Richard A -- Aquila, Andrew -- Hunter, Mark S -- Schulz, Joachim -- DePonte, Daniel P -- Weierstall, Uwe -- Doak, R Bruce -- Maia, Filipe R N C -- Martin, Andrew V -- Schlichting, Ilme -- Lomb, Lukas -- Coppola, Nicola -- Shoeman, Robert L -- Epp, Sascha W -- Hartmann, Robert -- Rolles, Daniel -- Rudenko, Artem -- Foucar, Lutz -- Kimmel, Nils -- Weidenspointner, Georg -- Holl, Peter -- Liang, Mengning -- Barthelmess, Miriam -- Caleman, Carl -- Boutet, Sebastien -- Bogan, Michael J -- Krzywinski, Jacek -- Bostedt, Christoph -- Bajt, Sasa -- Gumprecht, Lars -- Rudek, Benedikt -- Erk, Benjamin -- Schmidt, Carlo -- Homke, Andre -- Reich, Christian -- Pietschner, Daniel -- Struder, Lothar -- Hauser, Gunter -- Gorke, Hubert -- Ullrich, Joachim -- Herrmann, Sven -- Schaller, Gerhard -- Schopper, Florian -- Soltau, Heike -- Kuhnel, Kai-Uwe -- Messerschmidt, Marc -- Bozek, John D -- Hau-Riege, Stefan P -- Frank, Matthias -- Hampton, Christina Y -- Sierra, Raymond G -- Starodub, Dmitri -- Williams, Garth J -- Hajdu, Janos -- Timneanu, Nicusor -- Seibert, M Marvin -- Andreasson, Jakob -- Rocker, Andrea -- Jonsson, Olof -- Svenda, Martin -- Stern, Stephan -- Nass, Karol -- Andritschke, Robert -- Schroter, Claus-Dieter -- Krasniqi, Faton -- Bott, Mario -- Schmidt, Kevin E -- Wang, Xiaoyu -- Grotjohann, Ingo -- Holton, James M -- Barends, Thomas R M -- Neutze, Richard -- Marchesini, Stefano -- Fromme, Raimund -- Schorb, Sebastian -- Rupp, Daniela -- Adolph, Marcus -- Gorkhover, Tais -- Andersson, Inger -- Hirsemann, Helmut -- Potdevin, Guillaume -- Graafsma, Heinz -- Nilsson, Bjorn -- Spence, John C H -- 1R01GM095583-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- 1U54GM094625-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094625/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 3;470(7332):73-7. doi: 10.1038/nature09750.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. henry.chapman@desy.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293373" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Crystallography, X-Ray/instrumentation/*methods ; Lasers ; Models, Molecular ; Nanoparticles/*chemistry ; Nanotechnology/instrumentation/*methods ; Photosystem I Protein Complex/*chemistry ; Protein Conformation ; Time Factors ; X-Rays
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-09-16
    Description: The Ras-like GTPases RalA and RalB are important drivers of tumour growth and metastasis. Chemicals that block Ral function would be valuable as research tools and for cancer therapeutics. Here we used protein structure analysis and virtual screening to identify drug-like molecules that bind to a site on the GDP-bound form of Ral. The compounds RBC6, RBC8 and RBC10 inhibited the binding of Ral to its effector RALBP1, as well as inhibiting Ral-mediated cell spreading of murine embryonic fibroblasts and anchorage-independent growth of human cancer cell lines. The binding of the RBC8 derivative BQU57 to RalB was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance and (1)H-(15)N transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) NMR spectroscopy. RBC8 and BQU57 show selectivity for Ral relative to the GTPases Ras and RhoA and inhibit tumour xenograft growth to a similar extent to the depletion of Ral using RNA interference. Our results show the utility of structure-based discovery for the development of therapeutics for Ral-dependent cancers.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351747/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351747/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yan, Chao -- Liu, Degang -- Li, Liwei -- Wempe, Michael F -- Guin, Sunny -- Khanna, May -- Meier, Jeremy -- Hoffman, Brenton -- Owens, Charles -- Wysoczynski, Christina L -- Nitz, Matthew D -- Knabe, William E -- Ahmed, Mansoor -- Brautigan, David L -- Paschal, Bryce M -- Schwartz, Martin A -- Jones, David N M -- Ross, David -- Meroueh, Samy O -- Theodorescu, Dan -- CA075115/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA091846/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA104106/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM47214/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA104106/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA044579/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA046934/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA091846/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA075115/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA143971/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007635/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001082/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1TR001082/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 20;515(7527):443-7. doi: 10.1038/nature13713. Epub 2014 Sep 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Surgery, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA. ; Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA [2] Department of Cell Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA [2] Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Indiana University - Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] Department of Surgery, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA [2] Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA [3] University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25219851" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation/drug effects ; Computer Simulation ; *Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor ; Female ; GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; *Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Neoplasms/drug therapy/enzymology/metabolism/pathology ; Protein Binding/drug effects ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Small Molecule Libraries/*chemistry/*pharmacology ; Substrate Specificity ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays ; ral GTP-Binding Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; ras Proteins/metabolism
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-11-25
    Description: Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we report the structure of V1/V2 in complex with PG9. V1/V2 forms a four-stranded beta-sheet domain, in which sequence diversity and glycosylation are largely segregated to strand-connecting loops. PG9 recognition involves electrostatic, sequence-independent and glycan interactions: the latter account for over half the interactive surface but are of sufficiently weak affinity to avoid autoreactivity. The structures of V1/V2-directed antibodies CH04 and PGT145 indicate that they share a common mode of glycan penetration by extended anionic loops. In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which-with PG9-involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406929/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406929/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLellan, Jason S -- Pancera, Marie -- Carrico, Chris -- Gorman, Jason -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Khayat, Reza -- Louder, Robert -- Pejchal, Robert -- Sastry, Mallika -- Dai, Kaifan -- O'Dell, Sijy -- Patel, Nikita -- Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Zhu, Jiang -- Boyington, Jeffrey C -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Diwanji, Devan -- Georgiev, Ivelin -- Kwon, Young Do -- Lee, Doyung -- Louder, Mark K -- Moquin, Stephanie -- Schmidt, Stephen D -- Yang, Zhi-Yong -- Bonsignori, Mattia -- Crump, John A -- Kapiga, Saidi H -- Sam, Noel E -- Haynes, Barton F -- Burton, Dennis R -- Koff, Wayne C -- Walker, Laura M -- Phogat, Sanjay -- Wyatt, Richard -- Orwenyo, Jared -- Wang, Lai-Xi -- Arthos, James -- Bewley, Carole A -- Mascola, John R -- Nabel, Gary J -- Schief, William R -- Ward, Andrew B -- Wilson, Ian A -- Kwong, Peter D -- R01 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 23;480(7377):336-43. doi: 10.1038/nature10696.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113616" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology ; Antibody Affinity/immunology ; Antibody Specificity/*immunology ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry/immunology ; Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Glycopeptides/chemistry/immunology ; Glycosylation ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*chemistry/*immunology ; HIV-1/*chemistry/*immunology ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Immune Evasion ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polysaccharides/chemistry/immunology ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-09-06
    Description: PPARgamma is the functioning receptor for the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetes drugs including rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. These drugs are full classical agonists for this nuclear receptor, but recent data have shown that many PPARgamma-based drugs have a separate biochemical activity, blocking the obesity-linked phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5. Here we describe novel synthetic compounds that have a unique mode of binding to PPARgamma, completely lack classical transcriptional agonism and block the Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation in cultured adipocytes and in insulin-resistant mice. Moreover, one such compound, SR1664, has potent antidiabetic activity while not causing the fluid retention and weight gain that are serious side effects of many of the PPARgamma drugs. Unlike TZDs, SR1664 also does not interfere with bone formation in culture. These data illustrate that new classes of antidiabetes drugs can be developed by specifically targeting the Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179551/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179551/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Choi, Jang Hyun -- Banks, Alexander S -- Kamenecka, Theodore M -- Busby, Scott A -- Chalmers, Michael J -- Kumar, Naresh -- Kuruvilla, Dana S -- Shin, Youseung -- He, Yuanjun -- Bruning, John B -- Marciano, David P -- Cameron, Michael D -- Laznik, Dina -- Jurczak, Michael J -- Schurer, Stephan C -- Vidovic, Dusica -- Shulman, Gerald I -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- Griffin, Patrick R -- 1RC4DK090861/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK040936/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-30/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-31/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC4 DK090861/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC4 DK090861-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U24 DK059635/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH074404/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH074404-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54-MH074404/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 4;477(7365):477-81. doi: 10.1038/nature10383.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Biology and Division of Metabolism and Chronic Disease, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21892191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3-L1 Cells ; Adipocytes/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, White/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry/pharmacology ; Body Fluids/drug effects ; COS Cells ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Dietary Fats/pharmacology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects/chemistry/*pharmacology ; Ligands ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Obese ; Models, Molecular ; Obesity/chemically induced/metabolism ; Osteogenesis/drug effects ; PPAR gamma/agonists/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Phosphoserine/metabolism ; Thiazolidinediones/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Transcription, Genetic/drug effects ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology ; Weight Gain/drug effects
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-07-24
    Description: Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumours in children. Identifying and understanding the genetic events that drive these tumours is critical for the development of more effective diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. Recently, our group and others described distinct molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma on the basis of transcriptional and copy number profiles. Here we use whole-exome hybrid capture and deep sequencing to identify somatic mutations across the coding regions of 92 primary medulloblastoma/normal pairs. Overall, medulloblastomas have low mutation rates consistent with other paediatric tumours, with a median of 0.35 non-silent mutations per megabase. We identified twelve genes mutated at statistically significant frequencies, including previously known mutated genes in medulloblastoma such as CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4 and TP53. Recurrent somatic mutations were newly identified in an RNA helicase gene, DDX3X, often concurrent with CTNNB1 mutations, and in the nuclear co-repressor (N-CoR) complex genes GPS2, BCOR and LDB1. We show that mutant DDX3X potentiates transactivation of a TCF promoter and enhances cell viability in combination with mutant, but not wild-type, beta-catenin. Together, our study reveals the alteration of WNT, hedgehog, histone methyltransferase and now N-CoR pathways across medulloblastomas and within specific subtypes of this disease, and nominates the RNA helicase DDX3X as a component of pathogenic beta-catenin signalling in medulloblastoma.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3413789/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3413789/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pugh, Trevor J -- Weeraratne, Shyamal Dilhan -- Archer, Tenley C -- Pomeranz Krummel, Daniel A -- Auclair, Daniel -- Bochicchio, James -- Carneiro, Mauricio O -- Carter, Scott L -- Cibulskis, Kristian -- Erlich, Rachel L -- Greulich, Heidi -- Lawrence, Michael S -- Lennon, Niall J -- McKenna, Aaron -- Meldrim, James -- Ramos, Alex H -- Ross, Michael G -- Russ, Carsten -- Shefler, Erica -- Sivachenko, Andrey -- Sogoloff, Brian -- Stojanov, Petar -- Tamayo, Pablo -- Mesirov, Jill P -- Amani, Vladimir -- Teider, Natalia -- Sengupta, Soma -- Francois, Jessica Pierre -- Northcott, Paul A -- Taylor, Michael D -- Yu, Furong -- Crabtree, Gerald R -- Kautzman, Amanda G -- Gabriel, Stacey B -- Getz, Gad -- Jager, Natalie -- Jones, David T W -- Lichter, Peter -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Roberts, Thomas M -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Pomeroy, Scott L -- Cho, Yoon-Jae -- CA050661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- L40 NS063706/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD018655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA030002/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA105607/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109467/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA148699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA154480/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS046789/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01CA105607/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA109467/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA148699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R25 NS070682/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R25NS070682/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 2;488(7409):106-10. doi: 10.1038/nature11329.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22820256" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cerebellar Neoplasms/classification/*genetics ; Child ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; DNA Helicases/chemistry/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Exome/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Hedgehog Proteins/metabolism ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics ; LIM Domain Proteins/genetics ; Medulloblastoma/classification/*genetics ; Models, Molecular ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neoplasm Proteins/genetics ; Nuclear Proteins/chemistry/genetics ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics ; Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics ; Repressor Proteins/genetics ; Signal Transduction ; TCF Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics ; Wnt Proteins/metabolism ; beta Catenin/genetics/metabolism
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-01-24
    Description: Hypertension affects one billion people and is a principal reversible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), a rare Mendelian syndrome featuring hypertension, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis, has revealed previously unrecognized physiology orchestrating the balance between renal salt reabsorption and K(+) and H(+) excretion. Here we used exome sequencing to identify mutations in kelch-like 3 (KLHL3) or cullin 3 (CUL3) in PHAII patients from 41 unrelated families. KLHL3 mutations are either recessive or dominant, whereas CUL3 mutations are dominant and predominantly de novo. CUL3 and BTB-domain-containing kelch proteins such as KLHL3 are components of cullin-RING E3 ligase complexes that ubiquitinate substrates bound to kelch propeller domains. Dominant KLHL3 mutations are clustered in short segments within the kelch propeller and BTB domains implicated in substrate and cullin binding, respectively. Diverse CUL3 mutations all result in skipping of exon 9, producing an in-frame deletion. Because dominant KLHL3 and CUL3 mutations both phenocopy recessive loss-of-function KLHL3 mutations, they may abrogate ubiquitination of KLHL3 substrates. Disease features are reversed by thiazide diuretics, which inhibit the Na-Cl cotransporter in the distal nephron of the kidney; KLHL3 and CUL3 are expressed in this location, suggesting a mechanistic link between KLHL3 and CUL3 mutations, increased Na-Cl reabsorption, and disease pathogenesis. These findings demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing in disease gene identification despite the combined complexities of locus heterogeneity, mixed models of transmission and frequent de novo mutation, and establish a fundamental role for KLHL3 and CUL3 in blood pressure, K(+) and pH homeostasis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278668/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278668/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boyden, Lynn M -- Choi, Murim -- Choate, Keith A -- Nelson-Williams, Carol J -- Farhi, Anita -- Toka, Hakan R -- Tikhonova, Irina R -- Bjornson, Robert -- Mane, Shrikant M -- Colussi, Giacomo -- Lebel, Marcel -- Gordon, Richard D -- Semmekrot, Ben A -- Poujol, Alain -- Valimaki, Matti J -- De Ferrari, Maria E -- Sanjad, Sami A -- Gutkin, Michael -- Karet, Fiona E -- Tucci, Joseph R -- Stockigt, Jim R -- Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M -- Porter, Craig C -- Anand, Sudhir K -- Whiteford, Margo L -- Davis, Ira D -- Dewar, Stephanie B -- Bettinelli, Alberto -- Fadrowski, Jeffrey J -- Belsha, Craig W -- Hunley, Tracy E -- Nelson, Raoul D -- Trachtman, Howard -- Cole, Trevor R P -- Pinsk, Maury -- Bockenhauer, Detlef -- Shenoy, Mohan -- Vaidyanathan, Priya -- Foreman, John W -- Rasoulpour, Majid -- Thameem, Farook -- Al-Shahrouri, Hania Z -- Radhakrishnan, Jai -- Gharavi, Ali G -- Goilav, Beatrice -- Lifton, Richard P -- KL2 RR024138/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- KL2 RR024138-07/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK079310/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK079310-04S1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30-DK079310/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- UL1-RR024139/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 22;482(7383):98-102. doi: 10.1038/nature10814.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22266938" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Blood Pressure/genetics ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/*genetics ; Cohort Studies ; Cullin Proteins/chemistry/*genetics ; Electrolytes ; Exons/genetics ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genes, Dominant/genetics ; Genes, Recessive/genetics ; Genotype ; Homeostasis/genetics ; Humans ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Hypertension/complications/*genetics/physiopathology ; Male ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Potassium/metabolism ; Pseudohypoaldosteronism/complications/*genetics/physiopathology ; Sodium Chloride/metabolism ; Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/complications/*genetics/physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-01-14
    Description: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are eukaryotic integral membrane proteins that modulate biological function by initiating cellular signalling in response to chemically diverse agonists. Despite recent progress in the structural biology of GPCRs, the molecular basis for agonist binding and allosteric modulation of these proteins is poorly understood. Structural knowledge of agonist-bound states is essential for deciphering the mechanism of receptor activation, and for structure-guided design and optimization of ligands. However, the crystallization of agonist-bound GPCRs has been hampered by modest affinities and rapid off-rates of available agonists. Using the inactive structure of the human beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) as a guide, we designed a beta(2)AR agonist that can be covalently tethered to a specific site on the receptor through a disulphide bond. The covalent beta(2)AR-agonist complex forms efficiently, and is capable of activating a heterotrimeric G protein. We crystallized a covalent agonist-bound beta(2)AR-T4L fusion protein in lipid bilayers through the use of the lipidic mesophase method, and determined its structure at 3.5 A resolution. A comparison to the inactive structure and an antibody-stabilized active structure (companion paper) shows how binding events at both the extracellular and intracellular surfaces are required to stabilize an active conformation of the receptor. The structures are in agreement with long-timescale (up to 30 mus) molecular dynamics simulations showing that an agonist-bound active conformation spontaneously relaxes to an inactive-like conformation in the absence of a G protein or stabilizing antibody.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074335/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074335/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rosenbaum, Daniel M -- Zhang, Cheng -- Lyons, Joseph A -- Holl, Ralph -- Aragao, David -- Arlow, Daniel H -- Rasmussen, Soren G F -- Choi, Hee-Jung -- Devree, Brian T -- Sunahara, Roger K -- Chae, Pil Seok -- Gellman, Samuel H -- Dror, Ron O -- Shaw, David E -- Weis, William I -- Caffrey, Martin -- Gmeiner, Peter -- Kobilka, Brian K -- 50GM073210/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM56169/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM75915/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- M083118/PHS HHS/ -- NS028471/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM75913/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P60DK-20572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068603/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS028471/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS028471-20/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 13;469(7329):236-40. doi: 10.1038/nature09665.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228876" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Crystallization ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disulfides/chemistry/metabolism ; Drug Inverse Agonism ; Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Lipid Bilayers/chemistry/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Procaterol/chemistry/metabolism ; Propanolamines/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Viral Proteins/chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-09
    Description: Wild waterfowl form the main reservoir of influenza A viruses, from which transmission occurs directly or indirectly to various secondary hosts, including humans. Direct avian-to-human transmission has been observed for viruses of subtypes A(H5N1), A(H7N2), A(H7N3), A(H7N7), A(H9N2) and A(H10N7) upon human exposure to poultry, but a lack of sustained human-to-human transmission has prevented these viruses from causing new pandemics. Recently, avian A(H7N9) viruses were transmitted to humans, causing severe respiratory disease and deaths in China. Because transmission via respiratory droplets and aerosols (hereafter referred to as airborne transmission) is the main route for efficient transmission between humans, it is important to gain an insight into airborne transmission of the A(H7N9) virus. Here we show that although the A/Anhui/1/2013 A(H7N9) virus harbours determinants associated with human adaptation and transmissibility between mammals, its airborne transmissibility in ferrets is limited, and it is intermediate between that of typical human and avian influenza viruses. Multiple A(H7N9) virus genetic variants were transmitted. Upon ferret passage, variants with higher avian receptor binding, higher pH of fusion, and lower thermostability were selected, potentially resulting in reduced transmissibility. This A(H7N9) virus outbreak highlights the need for increased understanding of the determinants of efficient airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses between mammals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3819191/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3819191/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Richard, Mathilde -- Schrauwen, Eefje J A -- de Graaf, Miranda -- Bestebroer, Theo M -- Spronken, Monique I J -- van Boheemen, Sander -- de Meulder, Dennis -- Lexmond, Pascal -- Linster, Martin -- Herfst, Sander -- Smith, Derek J -- van den Brand, Judith M -- Burke, David F -- Kuiken, Thijs -- Rimmelzwaan, Guus F -- Osterhaus, Albert D M E -- Fouchier, Ron A M -- HHSN266200700010C/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN266200700010C/PHS HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Sep 26;501(7468):560-3. doi: 10.1038/nature12476. Epub 2013 Aug 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23925116" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air Microbiology ; Animals ; Birds/virology ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Dogs ; Ferrets/*virology ; Genome, Viral/genetics ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry ; Humans ; Influenza A virus/chemistry/classification/genetics/*pathogenicity ; Influenza in Birds/transmission/virology ; Influenza, Human/transmission/virology ; Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells ; Models, Molecular ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*transmission/*virology ; Vero Cells
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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