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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 37 (2007): 394-407, doi:10.1175/jpo3018.1.
    Description: The ability of paleoceanographic tracers to constrain rates of transport is examined using an inverse method to combine idealized observations with a geostrophic model. Considered are the spatial distribution, accuracy, and types of tracers required to constrain changes in meridional transport within an idealized single-hemisphere basin. Measurements of density and radioactive tracers each act to constrain rates of transport. Conservative tracers, while not of themselves able to inform regarding rates of transport, improve constraints when coupled with density or radioactive observations. It is found that the tracer data would require an accuracy one order of magnitude better than is presently available for paleo-observations to conclusively rule out factor-of-2 changes in meridional transport, even when assumed available over the entire model domain. When data are available only at the margins and bottom of the model, radiocarbon is unable to constrain transport while density remains effective only when a reference velocity level is assumed. The difficulty in constraining the circulation in this idealized model indicates that placing firm bounds on past meridional transport rates will prove challenging.
    Description: The first author is supported by the NOAA Postdoctoral Program in Climate and Global Change and GG by the National Ocean Partnership Program (ECCO). Author OM acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation.
    Keywords: Tracers ; Transport ; Paleoclimatology ; Ocean models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
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    American Meteorological Society
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 39 (2009): 2910-2925, doi:10.1175/2009JPO4139.1.
    Description: The propagation of Rossby waves on a midlatitude β plane is investigated in the presence of density diffusion with the aid of linear hydrostatic theory. The search for wave solutions in a vertically bounded medium subject to horizontal (vertical) diffusion leads to an eigenvalue problem of second (fourth) order. Exact solutions of the problem are obtained for uniform background stratification (N), and approximate solutions are constructed for variable N using the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin method. Roots of the eigenvalue relations for free waves are found and discussed. The barotropic wave of adiabatic theory is also a solution of the eigenvalue problem as this is augmented with density diffusion in the horizontal or vertical direction. The barotropic wave is undamped as fluid parcels in the wave move only horizontally and are therefore insensitive to the vortex stretching induced by mixing. On the other hand, density diffusion modifies the properties of baroclinic waves of adiabatic theory. In the presence of horizontal diffusion the baroclinic modes are damped but their vertical structure remains unaltered. The ability of horizontal diffusion to damp baroclinic waves stems from its tendency to counteract the deformation of isopycnal surfaces caused by the passage of these waves. The damping rate increases (i) linearly with horizontal diffusivity and (ii) nonlinearly with horizontal wavenumber and mode number. In the presence of vertical diffusion the baroclinic waves suffer both damping and a change in vertical structure. In the long-wave limit the damping is critical (wave decay rate numerically equal to wave frequency) and increases as the square roots of vertical diffusivity and zonal wavenumber. Density diffusion in the horizontal or vertical direction reduces the amplitude of the phase speed of westward-propagating waves. Observational estimates of eddy diffusivities suggest that horizontal and vertical mixing strongly attenuates baroclinic waves in the ocean but that vertical mixing is too weak to notably modify the vertical structure of the gravest modes.
    Description: This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.
    Keywords: Rossby waves ; Extratropics ; Buoyancy ; Mixing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-17
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 31 (2018): 8059-8079, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0769.1.
    Description: We use the method of least squares with Lagrange multipliers to fit an ocean general circulation model to the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface (MARGO) estimate of near sea surface temperature (NSST) at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; circa 23–19 thousand years ago). Compared to a modern simulation, the resulting global, last-glacial ocean state estimate, which fits the MARGO data within uncertainties in a free-running coupled ocean–sea ice simulation, has global-mean NSSTs that are 2°C lower and greater sea ice extent in all seasons in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Increased brine rejection by sea ice formation in the Southern Ocean contributes to a stronger abyssal stratification set principally by salinity, qualitatively consistent with pore fluid measurements. The upper cell of the glacial Atlantic overturning circulation is deeper and stronger. Dye release experiments show similar distributions of Southern Ocean source waters in the glacial and modern western Atlantic, suggesting that LGM NSST data do not require a major reorganization of abyssal water masses. Outstanding challenges in reconstructing LGM ocean conditions include reducing effects from model biases and finding computationally efficient ways to incorporate abyssal tracers in global circulation inversions. Progress will be aided by the development of coupled ocean–atmosphere–ice inverse models, by improving high-latitude model processes that connect the upper and abyssal oceans, and by the collection of additional paleoclimate observations.
    Description: DEA was supported by a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and NSF Grant OCE-1060735. OM acknowledges support from the NSF. GF was supported by NASA Award 1553749 and Simons Foundation Award 549931.
    Keywords: Ocean ; Abyssal circulation ; Sea surface temperature ; Paleoclimate ; Inverse methods ; Ocean models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 25 (2010): PA4222, doi:10.1029/2010PA001936.
    Description: Observations and an ocean box model are combined in order to test the adequacy of the freshwater forcing hypothesis to explain abrupt climate change given the uncertainties in the parameterization of vertical buoyancy transport in the ocean. The combination is carried out using Bayesian stochastic inversion, which allows us to infer changes in the mass balance of Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice sheets and in the meridional transports of mass and heat in the Atlantic Ocean that would be required to explain Dansgaard-Oeschger Interstadials (DOIs) from 30 to 39 kyr B.P. The mean sea level changes implied by changes in NH ice sheet mass balance agree in amplitude and timing with reconstructions from the geologic record, which gives some support to the freshwater forcing hypothesis. The inversion suggests that the duration of the DOIs should be directly related to the growth of land ice. Our results are unaffected by uncertainties in the representation of vertical buoyancy transport in the ocean. However, the solutions are sensitive to assumptions about physical processes at polar latitudes.
    Description: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant OCE‐0402363 and Department of Energy grant DE‐FG02‐08ER64619.
    Keywords: Inversion ; MOC ; Abrupt ; Sea level ; Coral ; Mixing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 23 (2010): 4841–4855, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3273.1.
    Description: A 1-Myr-long time-dependent solution of a zonally averaged ocean–atmosphere model subject to Milankovitch forcing is examined to gain insight into long-term changes in the planetary-scale meridional moisture flux in the atmosphere. The model components are a one-dimensional (latitudinal) atmospheric energy balance model with an active hydrological cycle and an ocean circulation model representing four basins (Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans). This study finds that the inclusion of an active hydrological cycle does not significantly modify the responses of annual-mean air and ocean temperatures to Milankovitch forcing found in previous integrations with a fixed hydrological cycle. Likewise, the meridional overturning circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean is not significantly affected by hydrological changes. Rather, it mainly responds to precessionally driven variations of ocean temperature in subsurface layers (between 70- and 500-m depth) of this basin. On the other hand, annual and zonal means of evaporation rate and meridional flux of moisture in the atmosphere respond notably to obliquity-driven changes in the meridional gradient of annual-mean insolation. Thus, when obliquity is decreased (increased), the meridional moisture flux in the atmosphere is intensified (weakened). This hydrological response is consistent with deuterium excess records from polar ice cores, which are characterized by dominant obliquity cycles.
    Description: A. A. thanks the Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre of McGill University for a Network Grant that made possible an enriching twoweek stay at WHOI during June 2007. O. M. acknowledges support from theU.S.National Science Foundation. Support from a Canadian NSERC Discovery Grant awarded to L.A.M. is gratefully acknowledged.
    Keywords: Forcing ; Moisture ; Fluxes ; Ocean models ; Coupled models ; Southern Ocean ; Pacific Ocean ; Atlantic Ocean ; Indian Ocean
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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