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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2010-08-21
    Description: Haemostasis in the arteriolar circulation mediated by von Willebrand factor (VWF) binding to platelets is an example of an adhesive interaction that must withstand strong hydrodynamic forces acting on cells. VWF is a concatenated, multifunctional protein that has binding sites for platelets as well as subendothelial collagen. Binding of the A1 domain in VWF to the glycoprotein Ib alpha subunit (GPIbalpha) on the surface of platelets mediates crosslinking of platelets to one another and the formation of a platelet plug for arterioles. The importance of VWF is illustrated by its mutation in von Willebrand disease, a bleeding diathesis. Here, we describe a novel mechanochemical specialization of the A1-GPIbalpha bond for force-resistance. We have developed a method that enables, for the first time, repeated measurements of the binding and unbinding of a receptor and ligand in a single molecule (ReaLiSM). We demonstrate two states of the receptor-ligand bond, that is, a flex-bond. One state is seen at low force; a second state begins to engage at 10 pN with a approximately 20-fold longer lifetime and greater force resistance. The lifetimes of the two states, how force exponentiates lifetime, and the kinetics of switching between the two states are all measured. For the first time, single-molecule measurements on this system are in agreement with bulk phase measurements. The results have important implications not only for how platelets bound to VWF are able to resist force to plug arterioles, but also how increased flow activates platelet plug formation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4117310/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4117310/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Jongseong -- Zhang, Cheng-Zhong -- Zhang, Xiaohui -- Springer, Timothy A -- HL-48675/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL048675/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Aug 19;466(7309):992-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09295.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Immune Disease Institute, Children's Hospital Boston and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 3 Blackfan Circle, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725043" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arterioles/cytology/*physiology ; Blood Coagulation/*physiology ; Blood Platelets/chemistry/cytology/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Hemorheology ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Ligands ; Membrane Glycoproteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Mice ; Models, Chemical ; Models, Molecular ; Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Tensile Strength ; von Willebrand Factor/chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-12-03
    Description: CAAX proteins have essential roles in multiple signalling pathways, controlling processes such as proliferation, differentiation and carcinogenesis. The approximately 120 mammalian CAAX proteins function at cellular membranes and include the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, nuclear lamins, the gamma-subunit of heterotrimeric GTPases, and several protein kinases and phosphatases. The proper localization of CAAX proteins to cell membranes is orchestrated by a series of post-translational modifications of the carboxy-terminal CAAX motifs (where C is cysteine, A is an aliphatic amino acid and X is any amino acid). These reactions involve prenylation of the cysteine residue, cleavage at the AAX tripeptide and methylation of the carboxyl-prenylated cysteine residue. The major CAAX protease activity is mediated by Rce1 (Ras and a-factor converting enzyme 1), an intramembrane protease (IMP) of the endoplasmic reticulum. Information on the architecture and proteolytic mechanism of Rce1 has been lacking. Here we report the crystal structure of a Methanococcus maripaludis homologue of Rce1, whose endopeptidase specificity for farnesylated peptides mimics that of eukaryotic Rce1. Its structure, comprising eight transmembrane alpha-helices, and catalytic site are distinct from those of other IMPs. The catalytic residues are located approximately 10 A into the membrane and are exposed to the cytoplasm and membrane through a conical cavity that accommodates the prenylated CAAX substrate. We propose that the farnesyl lipid binds to a site at the opening of two transmembrane alpha-helices, which results in the scissile bond being positioned adjacent to a glutamate-activated nucleophilic water molecule. This study suggests that Rce1 is the founding member of a novel IMP family, the glutamate IMPs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864837/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864837/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Manolaridis, Ioannis -- Kulkarni, Kiran -- Dodd, Roger B -- Ogasawara, Satoshi -- Zhang, Ziguo -- Bineva, Ganka -- O'Reilly, Nicola -- Hanrahan, Sarah J -- Thompson, Andrew J -- Cronin, Nora -- Iwata, So -- Barford, David -- 100140/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- A2560/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A7403/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A8022/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- BB/G023425/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 12;504(7479):301-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12754. Epub 2013 Dec 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK [2]. ; 1] Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK [2] [3] Division of Biological Sciences, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008, India (K.K.); Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK (R.B.D.). ; 1] Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK [2] Division of Biological Sciences, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008, India (K.K.); Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK (R.B.D.). ; 1] Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan [2] JST, Research Acceleration Program, Membrane Protein Crystallography Project, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. ; Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK. ; Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY, UK. ; 1] Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan [2] JST, Research Acceleration Program, Membrane Protein Crystallography Project, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan [3] Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24291792" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Archaeal Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; *Biocatalysis ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cysteine/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Endopeptidases/chemistry/metabolism ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/enzymology ; Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Glutamic Acid/metabolism ; Humans ; Membrane Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism ; Metalloendopeptidases/chemistry/metabolism ; Methanococcus/*enzymology ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Peptide Hydrolases/*chemistry/classification/*metabolism ; *Prenylation ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-12-18
    Description: Chronic neuroinflammation is a common feature of the ageing brain and some neurodegenerative disorders. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the regulation of innate immunity in the central nervous system remain elusive. Here we show that the astrocytic dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) modulates innate immunity through alphaB-crystallin (CRYAB), which is known to suppress neuroinflammation. We demonstrate that knockout mice lacking Drd2 showed remarkable inflammatory response in multiple central nervous system regions and increased the vulnerability of nigral dopaminergic neurons to neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity. Astrocytes null for Drd2 became hyper-responsive to immune stimuli with a marked reduction in the level of CRYAB. Preferential ablation of Drd2 in astrocytes robustly activated astrocytes in the substantia nigra. Gain- or loss-of-function studies showed that CRYAB is critical for DRD2-mediated modulation of innate immune response in astrocytes. Furthermore, treatment of wild-type mice with the selective DRD2 agonist quinpirole increased resistance of the nigral dopaminergic neurons to MPTP through partial suppression of inflammation. Our study indicates that astrocytic DRD2 activation normally suppresses neuroinflammation in the central nervous system through a CRYAB-dependent mechanism, and provides a new strategy for targeting the astrocyte-mediated innate immune response in the central nervous system during ageing and disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shao, Wei -- Zhang, Shu-zhen -- Tang, Mi -- Zhang, Xin-hua -- Zhou, Zheng -- Yin, Yan-qing -- Zhou, Qin-bo -- Huang, Yuan-yuan -- Liu, Ying-jun -- Wawrousek, Eric -- Chen, Teng -- Li, Sheng-bin -- Xu, Ming -- Zhou, Jiang-ning -- Hu, Gang -- Zhou, Jia-wei -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 7;494(7435):90-4. doi: 10.1038/nature11748. Epub 2012 Dec 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242137" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/pharmacology ; Animals ; Astrocytes/drug effects/*immunology/*metabolism ; Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects ; Immunity, Innate/drug effects ; Inflammation/chemically induced/genetics/*immunology/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Microglia/cytology/immunology ; Neuroprotective Agents/metabolism ; Quinpirole/pharmacology ; Receptors, Dopamine D2/agonists/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Substantia Nigra/cytology/drug effects ; alpha-Crystallin B Chain/genetics/*metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-05-07
    Description: Pluripotency, the ability to generate any cell type of the body, is an evanescent attribute of embryonic cells. Transitory pluripotent cells can be captured at different time points during embryogenesis and maintained as embryonic stem cells or epiblast stem cells in culture. Since ontogenesis is a dynamic process in both space and time, it seems counterintuitive that these two temporal states represent the full spectrum of organismal pluripotency. Here we show that by modulating culture parameters, a stem-cell type with unique spatial characteristics and distinct molecular and functional features, designated as region-selective pluripotent stem cells (rsPSCs), can be efficiently obtained from mouse embryos and primate pluripotent stem cells, including humans. The ease of culturing and editing the genome of human rsPSCs offers advantages for regenerative medicine applications. The unique ability of human rsPSCs to generate post-implantation interspecies chimaeric embryos may facilitate our understanding of early human development and evolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wu, Jun -- Okamura, Daiji -- Li, Mo -- Suzuki, Keiichiro -- Luo, Chongyuan -- Ma, Li -- He, Yupeng -- Li, Zhongwei -- Benner, Chris -- Tamura, Isao -- Krause, Marie N -- Nery, Joseph R -- Du, Tingting -- Zhang, Zhuzhu -- Hishida, Tomoaki -- Takahashi, Yuta -- Aizawa, Emi -- Kim, Na Young -- Lajara, Jeronimo -- Guillen, Pedro -- Campistol, Josep M -- Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez -- Ross, Pablo J -- Saghatelian, Alan -- Ren, Bing -- Ecker, Joseph R -- Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 May 21;521(7552):316-21. doi: 10.1038/nature14413. Epub 2015 May 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Gene Expression Laboratory, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Genomic Analysis Laboratory, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Genomic Analysis Laboratory, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Integrated Genomics, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0653, USA. ; 1] The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Gene Expression Laboratory, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Life Science Center, Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan. ; Grado en Medicina, Universidad Catolica, San Antonio de Murcia, Campus de los Jeronimos, 135, Guadalupe 30107, Spain. ; 1] Grado en Medicina, Universidad Catolica, San Antonio de Murcia, Campus de los Jeronimos, 135, Guadalupe 30107, Spain [2] Fundacion Pedro Guillen, Clinica Cemtro, Avenida Ventisquero de la Condesa, 42, 28035 Madrid, Spain. ; Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Carrer Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain. ; University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA. ; The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Peptide Biology Laboratory, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945737" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Culture Techniques/methods ; Cell Line ; *Chimera ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology ; Female ; Germ Layers/cytology ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology ; Male ; Mice ; Pan troglodytes ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Regenerative Medicine ; Species Specificity
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-08-28
    Description: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methylation is vital for Polycomb gene silencing, a classic epigenetic phenomenon that maintains transcriptional silencing throughout cell divisions. We report that PRC2 activity is regulated by the density of its substrate nucleosome arrays. Neighboring nucleosomes activate the PRC2 complex with a fragment of their H3 histones (Ala(31) to Arg(42)). We also identified mutations on PRC2 subunit Su(z)12, which impair its binding and response to the activating peptide and its ability in establishing H3K27 trimethylation levels in vivo. In mouse embryonic stem cells, local chromatin compaction occurs before the formation of trimethylated H3K27 upon transcription cessation of the retinoic acid-regulated gene CYP26a1. We propose that PRC2 can sense the chromatin environment to exert its role in the maintenance of transcriptional states.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yuan, Wen -- Wu, Tong -- Fu, Hang -- Dai, Chao -- Wu, Hui -- Liu, Nan -- Li, Xiang -- Xu, Mo -- Zhang, Zhuqiang -- Niu, Tianhui -- Han, Zhifu -- Chai, Jijie -- Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine -- Gao, Shaorong -- Zhu, Bing -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Aug 24;337(6097):971-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1225237.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22923582" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics ; Drosophila Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster ; Embryonic Stem Cells ; Gene Silencing ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/metabolism ; Methylation ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis ; Nucleosomes/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Peptide Fragments/metabolism ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 ; Polycomb-Group Proteins ; Repressor Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-11-15
    Description: Activators of innate immunity may have the potential to combat a broad range of infectious agents. We report that treatment with bacterial flagellin prevented rotavirus (RV) infection in mice and cured chronically RV-infected mice. Protection was independent of adaptive immunity and interferon (IFN, type I and II) and required flagellin receptors Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and NOD-like receptor C4 (NLRC4). Flagellin-induced activation of TLR5 on dendritic cells elicited production of the cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22), which induced a protective gene expression program in intestinal epithelial cells. Flagellin also induced NLRC4-dependent production of IL-18 and immediate elimination of RV-infected cells. Administration of IL-22 and IL-18 to mice fully recapitulated the capacity of flagellin to prevent or eliminate RV infection and thus holds promise as a broad-spectrum antiviral agent.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Benyue -- Chassaing, Benoit -- Shi, Zhenda -- Uchiyama, Robin -- Zhang, Zhan -- Denning, Timothy L -- Crawford, Sue E -- Pruijssers, Andrea J -- Iskarpatyoti, Jason A -- Estes, Mary K -- Dermody, Terence S -- Ouyang, Wenjun -- Williams, Ifor R -- Vijay-Kumar, Matam -- Gewirtz, Andrew T -- AI038296/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI080656/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI107943/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DK061417/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK064730/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK56338/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI038296/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI038296/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 14;346(6211):861-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1256999.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. ; Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. ; Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. ; Elizabeth B. Lamb Center for Pediatric Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA. ; Elizabeth B. Lamb Center for Pediatric Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA. Departments of Pediatrics, Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA. ; Department of Immunology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. ; Department of Nutritional Sciences and Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. agewirtz@gsu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25395539" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Diarrhea/immunology/therapy/virology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Feces/virology ; Flagellin/*administration & dosage/immunology ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics ; *Immunity, Innate ; Interleukin-18/administration & dosage/genetics/*immunology ; Interleukins/administration & dosage/genetics/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Mutation ; Rotavirus Infections/immunology/*prevention & control/therapy ; Toll-Like Receptor 5/genetics/*physiology ; Virus Shedding
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-08-27
    Description: Aberrant activation of oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressor genes opposes malignant transformation by triggering a stable arrest in cell growth, which is termed cellular senescence. This process is finely tuned by both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms that regulate the entry of tumour cells to senescence. Whether tumour-infiltrating immune cells can oppose senescence is unknown. Here we show that at the onset of senescence, PTEN null prostate tumours in mice are massively infiltrated by a population of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells that protect a fraction of proliferating tumour cells from senescence, thus sustaining tumour growth. Mechanistically, we found that Gr-1(+) cells antagonize senescence in a paracrine manner by interfering with the senescence-associated secretory phenotype of the tumour through the secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Strikingly, Pten-loss-induced cellular senescence was enhanced in vivo when Il1ra knockout myeloid cells were adoptively transferred to PTEN null mice. Therapeutically, docetaxel-induced senescence and efficacy were higher in PTEN null tumours when the percentage of tumour-infiltrating CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells was reduced using an antagonist of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2). Taken together, our findings identify a novel non-cell-autonomous network, established by innate immunity, that controls senescence evasion and chemoresistance. Targeting this network provides novel opportunities for cancer therapy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Di Mitri, Diletta -- Toso, Alberto -- Chen, Jing Jing -- Sarti, Manuela -- Pinton, Sandra -- Jost, Tanja Rezzonico -- D'Antuono, Rocco -- Montani, Erica -- Garcia-Escudero, Ramon -- Guccini, Ilaria -- Da Silva-Alvarez, Sabela -- Collado, Manuel -- Eisenberger, Mario -- Zhang, Zhe -- Catapano, Carlo -- Grassi, Fabio -- Alimonti, Andrea -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 6;515(7525):134-7. doi: 10.1038/nature13638. Epub 2014 Aug 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Institute of Oncology Research (IOR), Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland [2]. ; 1] Institute of Oncology Research (IOR), Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland [2] Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne UNIL, Lausanne CH1011, Switzerland. ; Institute of Oncology Research (IOR), Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB), Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland. ; 1] Institute of Oncology Research (IOR), Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland [2] Molecular Oncology Unit, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid, Spain. ; Laboratory of Stem Cells in Cancer and Aging, (stemCHUS) Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Clinical University Hospital (CHUS), E15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. ; Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231-1000, USA. ; Divisions of BioStatistics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231-1000, USA. ; 1] Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB), Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland [2] Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan I-20100, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25156255" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Aging/drug effects ; *Cell Movement ; Disease Progression ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/deficiency/metabolism/secretion ; Interleukin-1alpha/immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Myeloid Cells/*cytology/*metabolism/transplantation ; PTEN Phosphohydrolase/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/immunology/metabolism/*pathology ; Receptors, Chemokine/*metabolism ; Receptors, Interleukin-8B/antagonists & inhibitors ; Taxoids/pharmacology ; Tumor Escape ; Tumor Microenvironment
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2007-10-13
    Description: Human cancer is caused by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To catalog the genetic changes that occur during tumorigenesis, we isolated DNA from 11 breast and 11 colorectal tumors and determined the sequences of the genes in the Reference Sequence database in these samples. Based on analysis of exons representing 20,857 transcripts from 18,191 genes, we conclude that the genomic landscapes of breast and colorectal cancers are composed of a handful of commonly mutated gene "mountains" and a much larger number of gene "hills" that are mutated at low frequency. We describe statistical and bioinformatic tools that may help identify mutations with a role in tumorigenesis. These results have implications for understanding the nature and heterogeneity of human cancers and for using personal genomics for tumor diagnosis and therapy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wood, Laura D -- Parsons, D Williams -- Jones, Sian -- Lin, Jimmy -- Sjoblom, Tobias -- Leary, Rebecca J -- Shen, Dong -- Boca, Simina M -- Barber, Thomas -- Ptak, Janine -- Silliman, Natalie -- Szabo, Steve -- Dezso, Zoltan -- Ustyanksky, Vadim -- Nikolskaya, Tatiana -- Nikolsky, Yuri -- Karchin, Rachel -- Wilson, Paul A -- Kaminker, Joshua S -- Zhang, Zemin -- Croshaw, Randal -- Willis, Joseph -- Dawson, Dawn -- Shipitsin, Michail -- Willson, James K V -- Sukumar, Saraswati -- Polyak, Kornelia -- Park, Ben Ho -- Pethiyagoda, Charit L -- Pant, P V Krishna -- Ballinger, Dennis G -- Sparks, Andrew B -- Hartigan, James -- Smith, Douglas R -- Suh, Erick -- Papadopoulos, Nickolas -- Buckhaults, Phillip -- Markowitz, Sanford D -- Parmigiani, Giovanni -- Kinzler, Kenneth W -- Velculescu, Victor E -- Vogelstein, Bert -- CA 43460/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA 57345/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA109274/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA112828/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA121113/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA62924/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM070219/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM07309/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA43703/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RR017698/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Nov 16;318(5853):1108-13. Epub 2007 Oct 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17932254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Chromosome Mapping ; Colorectal Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism ; Computational Biology ; DNA, Neoplasm ; Databases, Genetic ; Genes, Neoplasm ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics ; Mice ; Mutation ; Neoplasm Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2008-12-06
    Description: A high-fat diet causes activation of the regulatory protein c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and triggers development of insulin resistance. JNK1 is therefore a potential target for therapeutic treatment of metabolic syndrome. We explored the mechanism of JNK1 signaling by engineering mice in which the Jnk1 gene was ablated selectively in adipose tissue. JNK1 deficiency in adipose tissue suppressed high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in the liver. JNK1-dependent secretion of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 by adipose tissue caused increased expression of liver SOCS3, a protein that induces hepatic insulin resistance. Thus, JNK1 activation in adipose tissue can cause insulin resistance in the liver.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2643026/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2643026/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sabio, Guadalupe -- Das, Madhumita -- Mora, Alfonso -- Zhang, Zhiyou -- Jun, John Y -- Ko, Hwi Jin -- Barrett, Tamera -- Kim, Jason K -- Davis, Roger J -- DK52530/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA065861/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA065861-14/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK080756/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Dec 5;322(5907):1539-43. doi: 10.1126/science.1160794.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056984" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/enzymology/*metabolism ; Adipose Tissue/enzymology/metabolism ; Animals ; Dietary Fats/administration & dosage ; Enzyme Activation ; Glucose/metabolism ; Insulin/metabolism ; Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins/metabolism ; *Insulin Resistance ; Interleukin-6/administration & dosage/metabolism ; Liver/*metabolism ; MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Mice ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; *Stress, Physiological ; Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-03-03
    Description: Mammals have single-rowed dentitions, whereas many nonmammalian vertebrates have teeth in multiple rows. Neither the molecular mechanism regulating iterative tooth initiation nor that restricting mammalian tooth development in one row is known. We found that mice lacking the transcription factor odd-skipped related-2 (Osr2) develop supernumerary teeth lingual to their molars because of expansion of the odontogenic field. Osr2 was expressed in a lingual-to-buccal gradient and restricted expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), an essential odontogenic signal, in the developing tooth mesenchyme. Expansion of odontogenic field in Osr2-deficient mice required Msx1, a feedback activator of Bmp4 expression. These findings suggest that the Bmp4-Msx1 pathway propagates mesenchymal activation for sequential tooth induction and that spatial modulation of this pathway provides a mechanism for patterning vertebrate dentition.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2650836/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2650836/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Zunyi -- Lan, Yu -- Chai, Yang -- Jiang, Rulang -- R01 DE013681/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01 DE013681-06/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01 DE013681-07/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01 DE013681-08/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01 DE013681-09/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01DE013681/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- T32DE007202/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Feb 27;323(5918):1232-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1167418.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Oral Biology and Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19251632" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4/metabolism ; Dentition ; Epithelium/embryology/metabolism ; Gene Expression ; Gene Expression Profiling ; MSX1 Transcription Factor/genetics/*metabolism ; Mesoderm/embryology/metabolism ; Mice ; Molar/embryology ; Morphogenesis ; Mutation ; *Odontogenesis ; Tooth Germ/embryology/metabolism ; Tooth, Supernumerary/*embryology ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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