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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2008-08-22
    Description: Interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD4(+) T lymphocytes (T(H)17 cells) constitute a subset of T-helper cells involved in host defence and several immune disorders. An intriguing feature of T(H)17 cells is their selective and constitutive presence in the intestinal lamina propria. Here we show that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) that can be derived from commensal bacteria activates a unique subset of lamina propria cells, CD70(high)CD11c(low) cells, leading to the differentiation of T(H)17 cells. Germ-free mice exhibit much lower concentrations of luminal ATP, accompanied by fewer lamina propria T(H)17 cells, compared to specific-pathogen-free mice. Systemic or rectal administration of ATP into these germ-free mice results in a marked increase in the number of lamina propria T(H)17 cells. A CD70(high)CD11c(low) subset of the lamina propria cells expresses T(H)17-prone molecules, such as IL-6, IL-23p19 and transforming-growth-factor-beta-activating integrin-alphaV and -beta8, in response to ATP stimulation, and preferentially induces T(H)17 differentiation of co-cultured naive CD4(+) T cells. The critical role of ATP is further underscored by the observation that administration of ATP exacerbates a T-cell-mediated colitis model with enhanced T(H)17 differentiation. These observations highlight the importance of commensal bacteria and ATP for T(H)17 differentiation in health and disease, and offer an explanation of why T(H)17 cells specifically present in the intestinal lamina propria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Atarashi, Koji -- Nishimura, Junichi -- Shima, Tatsuichiro -- Umesaki, Yoshinori -- Yamamoto, Masahiro -- Onoue, Masaharu -- Yagita, Hideo -- Ishii, Naoto -- Evans, Richard -- Honda, Kenya -- Takeda, Kiyoshi -- England -- Nature. 2008 Oct 9;455(7214):808-12. doi: 10.1038/nature07240. Epub 2008 Aug 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18716618" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigens, CD11c/metabolism ; Antigens, CD70/metabolism ; Cell Differentiation/*drug effects ; Cells, Cultured ; Colitis/chemically induced/immunology/pathology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Feces/microbiology ; Female ; Germ-Free Life ; Immunoglobulin A/analysis/immunology ; Interleukin-17/genetics/immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mucous Membrane/*cytology/*drug effects/immunology/microbiology ; Receptors, Purinergic P2/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/*cytology/*drug effects/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2009-11-06
    Description: The activation of innate immune responses by nucleic acids is crucial to protective and pathological immunities and is mediated by the transmembrane Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic receptors. However, it remains unknown whether a mechanism exists that integrates these nucleic-acid-sensing systems. Here we show that high-mobility group box (HMGB) proteins 1, 2 and 3 function as universal sentinels for nucleic acids. HMGBs bind to all immunogenic nucleic acids examined with a correlation between affinity and immunogenic potential. Hmgb1(-/-) and Hmgb2(-/-) mouse cells are defective in type-I interferon and inflammatory cytokine induction by DNA or RNA targeted to activate the cytosolic nucleic-acid-sensing receptors; cells in which the expression of all three HMGBs is suppressed show a more profound defect, accompanied by impaired activation of the transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. The absence of HMGBs also severely impairs the activation of TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 by their cognate nucleic acids. Our results therefore indicate a hierarchy in the nucleic-acid-mediated activation of immune responses, wherein the selective activation of nucleic-acid-sensing receptors is contingent on the more promiscuous sensing of nucleic acids by HMGBs. These findings may have implications for understanding the evolution of the innate immune system and for the treatment of immunological disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yanai, Hideyuki -- Ban, Tatsuma -- Wang, ZhiChao -- Choi, Myoung Kwon -- Kawamura, Takeshi -- Negishi, Hideo -- Nakasato, Makoto -- Lu, Yan -- Hangai, Sho -- Koshiba, Ryuji -- Savitsky, David -- Ronfani, Lorenza -- Akira, Shizuo -- Bianchi, Marco E -- Honda, Kenya -- Tamura, Tomohiko -- Kodama, Tatsuhiko -- Taniguchi, Tadatsugu -- England -- Nature. 2009 Nov 5;462(7269):99-103. doi: 10.1038/nature08512.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19890330" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cytosol/immunology ; DNA/immunology ; HMGB Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*immunology/*metabolism ; HMGB1 Protein/deficiency/genetics/immunology/metabolism ; HMGB2 Protein/deficiency/genetics/immunology/metabolism ; Immunity, Innate/*immunology ; Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Models, Immunological ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Nucleic Acids/*immunology ; Nucleotides/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; RNA/immunology ; Signal Transduction ; Toll-Like Receptors/immunology ; Virus Diseases/immunology/virology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, in developed nations is associated with changes to the microbial environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization by an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Resistance to Bacteroides colonization was dependent on type 2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota and that deworming treatment reduced levels of Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis in which certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ramanan, Deepshika -- Bowcutt, Rowann -- Lee, Soo Ching -- Tang, Mei San -- Kurtz, Zachary D -- Ding, Yi -- Honda, Kenya -- Gause, William C -- Blaser, Martin J -- Bonneau, Richard A -- Lim, Yvonne A L -- Loke, P'ng -- Cadwell, Ken -- AI007180/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI093811/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI107588/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DK090989/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK093668/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK103788/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL123340/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA016087/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000038/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR00038/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):608-12. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3229. Epub 2016 Apr 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ; Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS), Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)-Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 100-0004, Japan. ; Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA. ; Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA. Simons Center for Data Analysis, Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10011, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my. ; Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my. ; Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080105" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteroides/*immunology ; Bacteroides Infections/*immunology ; Clostridiales/immunology ; Clostridium Infections/immunology ; Crohn Disease/*genetics/immunology ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*immunology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Hygiene Hypothesis ; Intestines/*immunology/microbiology/parasitology ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/*genetics ; Trichuriasis/*immunology ; Trichuris/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-01-06
    Description: CD4(+) T regulatory cells (T(regs)), which express the Foxp3 transcription factor, play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we show that in mice, T(regs) were most abundant in the colonic mucosa. The spore-forming component of indigenous intestinal microbiota, particularly clusters IV and XIVa of the genus Clostridium, promoted T(reg) cell accumulation. Colonization of mice by a defined mix of Clostridium strains provided an environment rich in transforming growth factor-beta and affected Foxp3(+) T(reg) number and function in the colon. Oral inoculation of Clostridium during the early life of conventionally reared mice resulted in resistance to colitis and systemic immunoglobulin E responses in adult mice, suggesting a new therapeutic approach to autoimmunity and allergy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969237/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969237/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Atarashi, Koji -- Tanoue, Takeshi -- Shima, Tatsuichiro -- Imaoka, Akemi -- Kuwahara, Tomomi -- Momose, Yoshika -- Cheng, Genhong -- Yamasaki, Sho -- Saito, Takashi -- Ohba, Yusuke -- Taniguchi, Tadatsugu -- Takeda, Kiyoshi -- Hori, Shohei -- Ivanov, Ivaylo I -- Umesaki, Yoshinori -- Itoh, Kikuji -- Honda, Kenya -- R00 DK085329/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI052359/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI056154/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jan 21;331(6015):337-41. doi: 10.1126/science.1198469. Epub 2010 Dec 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21205640" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology ; Cecum/microbiology ; Cells, Cultured ; Clostridium/growth & development/*immunology ; Colitis/immunology/pathology/prevention & control ; Colon/*immunology/metabolism/*microbiology ; Feces/microbiology ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Germ-Free Life ; Immunity, Innate ; Immunoglobulin E/biosynthesis ; Interleukin-10/immunology/metabolism ; Intestinal Mucosa/*immunology/metabolism ; Intestine, Small/immunology ; Metagenome ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred A ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Receptors, Pattern Recognition/physiology ; Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*immunology/metabolism ; Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-07-15
    Description: Changes to the symbiotic microbiota early in life, or the absence of it, can lead to exacerbated type 2 immunity and allergic inflammations. Although it is unclear how the microbiota regulates type 2 immunity, it is a strong inducer of proinflammatory T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells and regulatory T cells (T(regs)) in the intestine. Here, we report that microbiota-induced T(regs) express the nuclear hormone receptor RORgammat and differentiate along a pathway that also leads to T(H)17 cells. In the absence of RORgammat(+) T(regs), T(H)2-driven defense against helminths is more efficient, whereas T(H)2-associated pathology is exacerbated. Thus, the microbiota regulates type 2 responses through the induction of type 3 RORgammat(+) T(regs) and T(H)17 cells and acts as a key factor in balancing immune responses at mucosal surfaces.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ohnmacht, Caspar -- Park, Joo-Hong -- Cording, Sascha -- Wing, James B -- Atarashi, Koji -- Obata, Yuuki -- Gaboriau-Routhiau, Valerie -- Marques, Rute -- Dulauroy, Sophie -- Fedoseeva, Maria -- Busslinger, Meinrad -- Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine -- Boneca, Ivo G -- Voehringer, David -- Hase, Koji -- Honda, Kenya -- Sakaguchi, Shimon -- Eberl, Gerard -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 28;349(6251):989-93. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4263. Epub 2015 Jul 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut Pasteur, Microenvironment and Immunity Unit, 75724 Paris, France. ; Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan. ; RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. ; INSERM, U1163, Laboratory of Intestinal Immunity, Paris, France. Universite Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cite and Institut Imagine, Paris, France. INRA Micalis UMR1319, Jouy-en-Josas, France. ; Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Technische Universitat and Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany. ; Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna Biocenter, 1030 Vienna, Austria. ; INSERM, U1163, Laboratory of Intestinal Immunity, Paris, France. Universite Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cite and Institut Imagine, Paris, France. ; Institut Pasteur, Biology and Genetics of Bacterial Cell Wall, 75724 Paris, France. INSERM, Groupe Avenir, 75015 Paris, France. ; Department of Infection Biology at the Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University Clinic Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. ; RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan. Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Institut Pasteur, Microenvironment and Immunity Unit, 75724 Paris, France. gerard.eberl@pasteur.fr.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160380" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology ; Colon/immunology/microbiology ; Germ-Free Life ; Homeostasis ; *Immunity, Mucosal ; Intestinal Mucosa/*immunology/*microbiology ; Intestine, Small/immunology/microbiology ; Intestines/immunology/*microbiology ; Mice ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Models, Immunological ; Nematospiroides dubius ; Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3/*metabolism ; Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms ; Strongylida Infections/immunology ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*immunology/metabolism ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Th2 Cells/immunology ; Vitamin A/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2000-03-17
    Description: Allergic asthma is caused by the aberrant expansion in the lung of T helper cells that produce type 2 (TH2) cytokines and is characterized by infiltration of eosinophils and bronchial hyperreactivity. This disease is often triggered by mast cells activated by immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic challenge. Activated mast cells release various chemical mediators, including prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), whose role in allergic asthma has now been investigated by the generation of mice deficient in the PGD receptor (DP). Sensitization and aerosol challenge of the homozygous mutant (DP-/-) mice with ovalbumin (OVA) induced increases in the serum concentration of IgE similar to those in wild-type mice subjected to this model of asthma. However, the concentrations of TH2 cytokines and the extent of lymphocyte accumulation in the lung of OVA-challenged DP-/- mice were greatly reduced compared with those in wild-type animals. Moreover, DP-/- mice showed only marginal infiltration of eosinophils and failed to develop airway hyperreactivity. Thus, PGD2 functions as a mast cell-derived mediator to trigger asthmatic responses.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Matsuoka, T -- Hirata, M -- Tanaka, H -- Takahashi, Y -- Murata, T -- Kabashima, K -- Sugimoto, Y -- Kobayashi, T -- Ushikubi, F -- Aze, Y -- Eguchi, N -- Urade, Y -- Yoshida, N -- Kimura, K -- Mizoguchi, A -- Honda, Y -- Nagai, H -- Narumiya, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Mar 17;287(5460):2013-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, Kyoto University Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10720327" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allergens/immunology ; Animals ; Asthma/immunology/metabolism/pathology/*physiopathology ; Bronchial Hyperreactivity ; Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology/immunology ; Crosses, Genetic ; Female ; Gene Targeting ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin E/blood ; Interferon-gamma/metabolism ; Interleukins/metabolism ; Lung/immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Lymphocytes/immunology ; Male ; Mast Cells/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mucus/secretion ; Ovalbumin/immunology ; Prostaglandin D2/metabolism/*physiology ; *Receptors, Immunologic ; Receptors, Prostaglandin/genetics/metabolism/*physiology ; Respiratory Mucosa/secretion
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-12-08
    Description: Bub1 is a multi-task protein kinase required for proper chromosome segregation in eukaryotes. Impairment of Bub1 in humans may lead to chromosomal instability (CIN) or tumorigenesis. Yet, the primary cellular substrate of Bub1 has remained elusive. Here, we show that Bub1 phosphorylates the conserved serine 121 of histone H2A in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The h2a-SA mutant, in which all cellular H2A-S121 is replaced by alanine, phenocopies the bub1 kinase-dead mutant (bub1-KD) in losing the centromeric localization of shugoshin proteins. Artificial tethering of shugoshin to centromeres largely restores the h2a-SA or bub1-KD-related CIN defects, a function that is evolutionally conserved. Thus, Bub1 kinase creates a mark for shugoshin localization and the correct partitioning of chromosomes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kawashima, Shigehiro A -- Yamagishi, Yuya -- Honda, Takashi -- Ishiguro, Kei-ichiro -- Watanabe, Yoshinori -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 Jan 8;327(5962):172-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1180189. Epub 2009 Nov 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19965387" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Centromere/*metabolism ; *Chromosomal Instability ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/genetics/*metabolism ; *Chromosome Segregation ; Chromosomes, Fungal/metabolism ; Histones/*metabolism ; Humans ; Kinetochores/metabolism ; Meiosis ; Mice ; Mitosis ; Nucleosomes/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Schizosaccharomyces/cytology/genetics/*metabolism ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Serine/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2002-12-10
    Description: Spermatogenesis is a highly specialized process of cellular differentiation to produce spermatozoa. This differentiation process accompanies morphological changes that are controlled by a number of genes expressed in a stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis. Here we show that in mice, the absence of a testis-specific, cytoplasmic polyadenylate [poly(A)] polymerase, TPAP, results in the arrest of spermiogenesis. TPAP-deficient mice display impaired expression of haploid-specific genes that are required for the morphogenesis of germ cells. The TPAP deficiency also causes incomplete elongation of poly(A) tails of particular transcription factor messenger RNAs. Although the overall cellular level of the transcription factor TAF10 is unaffected, TAF10 is insufficiently transported into the nucleus of germ cells. We propose that TPAP governs germ cell morphogenesis by modulating specific transcription factors at posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kashiwabara, Shin-Ichi -- Noguchi, Junko -- Zhuang, Tiangang -- Ohmura, Ko -- Honda, Arata -- Sugiura, Shin -- Miyamoto, Kiyoko -- Takahashi, Satoru -- Inoue, Kimiko -- Ogura, Atsuo -- Baba, Tadashi -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 Dec 6;298(5600):1999-2002.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12471261" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis ; Cytoplasm/enzymology ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Gene Targeting ; In Situ Nick-End Labeling ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mutation ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Organ Size ; Poly A/metabolism ; Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase/genetics/*metabolism ; Protein Biosynthesis ; RNA, Messenger/*metabolism ; Spermatids/physiology ; Spermatocytes/physiology ; *Spermatogenesis ; Spermatozoa/*physiology ; Testis/*enzymology/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic ; mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors/genetics/metabolism
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-06-28
    Description: Obesity has become more prevalent in most developed countries over the past few decades, and is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for several common types of cancer. As the worldwide obesity epidemic has shown no signs of abating, better understanding of the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated cancer is urgently needed. Although several events were proposed to be involved in obesity-associated cancer, the exact molecular mechanisms that integrate these events have remained largely unclear. Here we show that senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has crucial roles in promoting obesity-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in mice. Dietary or genetic obesity induces alterations of gut microbiota, thereby increasing the levels of deoxycholic acid (DCA), a gut bacterial metabolite known to cause DNA damage. The enterohepatic circulation of DCA provokes SASP phenotype in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which in turn secretes various inflammatory and tumour-promoting factors in the liver, thus facilitating HCC development in mice after exposure to chemical carcinogen. Notably, blocking DCA production or reducing gut bacteria efficiently prevents HCC development in obese mice. Similar results were also observed in mice lacking an SASP inducer or depleted of senescent HSCs, indicating that the DCA-SASP axis in HSCs has key roles in obesity-associated HCC development. Moreover, signs of SASP were also observed in the HSCs in the area of HCC arising in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, indicating that a similar pathway may contribute to at least certain aspects of obesity-associated HCC development in humans as well. These findings provide valuable new insights into the development of obesity-associated cancer and open up new possibilities for its control.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yoshimoto, Shin -- Loo, Tze Mun -- Atarashi, Koji -- Kanda, Hiroaki -- Sato, Seidai -- Oyadomari, Seiichi -- Iwakura, Yoichiro -- Oshima, Kenshiro -- Morita, Hidetoshi -- Hattori, Masahira -- Honda, Kenya -- Ishikawa, Yuichi -- Hara, Eiji -- Ohtani, Naoko -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 4;499(7456):97-101. doi: 10.1038/nature12347. Epub 2013 Jun 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Cancer Biology, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23803760" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology ; Bacteria/metabolism ; Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism ; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications/etiology/metabolism/prevention & control ; *Cell Aging/drug effects ; Cells, Cultured ; Cytokines/metabolism/secretion ; DNA Damage/drug effects ; Deoxycholic Acid/blood/*metabolism ; Dietary Fats/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Fatty Liver/complications/pathology ; Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects/*metabolism/*microbiology ; Hepatic Stellate Cells/cytology/drug effects/metabolism/*secretion ; Humans ; Interleukin-1beta/deficiency ; Liver Neoplasms/complications/etiology/*metabolism/prevention & control ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease ; Obesity/chemically induced/*metabolism ; Phenotype ; Risk Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-11-15
    Description: Gut commensal microbes shape the mucosal immune system by regulating the differentiation and expansion of several types of T cell. Clostridia, a dominant class of commensal microbe, can induce colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which commensal microbes induce colonic Treg cells have been unclear. Here we show that a large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells in mice. A comparative NMR-based metabolome analysis suggests that the luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids positively correlates with the number of Treg cells in the colon. Among short-chain fatty acids, butyrate induced the differentiation of Treg cells in vitro and in vivo, and ameliorated the development of colitis induced by adoptive transfer of CD4(+) CD45RB(hi) T cells in Rag1(-/-) mice. Treatment of naive T cells under the Treg-cell-polarizing conditions with butyrate enhanced histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the Foxp3 locus, suggesting a possible mechanism for how microbial-derived butyrate regulates the differentiation of Treg cells. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which host-microbe interactions establish immunological homeostasis in the gut.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Furusawa, Yukihiro -- Obata, Yuuki -- Fukuda, Shinji -- Endo, Takaho A -- Nakato, Gaku -- Takahashi, Daisuke -- Nakanishi, Yumiko -- Uetake, Chikako -- Kato, Keiko -- Kato, Tamotsu -- Takahashi, Masumi -- Fukuda, Noriko N -- Murakami, Shinnosuke -- Miyauchi, Eiji -- Hino, Shingo -- Atarashi, Koji -- Onawa, Satoshi -- Fujimura, Yumiko -- Lockett, Trevor -- Clarke, Julie M -- Topping, David L -- Tomita, Masaru -- Hori, Shohei -- Ohara, Osamu -- Morita, Tatsuya -- Koseki, Haruhiko -- Kikuchi, Jun -- Honda, Kenya -- Hase, Koji -- Ohno, Hiroshi -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 19;504(7480):446-50. doi: 10.1038/nature12721. Epub 2013 Nov 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan [3]. ; 1] RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan [3] Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan [4]. ; 1] RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Yamagata 997-0052, Japan [3]. ; RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. ; Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Yamagata 997-0052, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. ; Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. ; Preventative Health National Research Flagship, CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, South Australia 5000, Australia. ; 1] RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan [3] Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS-RCAI), Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan [3] PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan [4].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24226770" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation/drug effects ; Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; Butyrates/analysis/*metabolism/pharmacology ; *Cell Differentiation/drug effects ; Colitis/drug therapy/pathology ; Colon/cytology/*immunology/metabolism/*microbiology ; Conserved Sequence ; Female ; *Fermentation ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics ; Germ-Free Life ; Histones/metabolism ; Homeostasis/drug effects ; Intestinal Mucosa/cytology/immunology ; Lymphocyte Count ; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ; Male ; Metabolome ; Mice ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/drug effects ; *Symbiosis ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*cytology/drug effects/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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