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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Growth curve ; Genetic parameters ; Heritability ; Mice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Data from 1,919 outbred ICR mice were used to examine the potential usefulness of growth curve parameters as selection criteria for altering the relationship between body weight and age. A logistic growth function was used to model growth through 12 weeks of age. Estimates of asymptotic weight (A), maximum growth rate (r) and age at point of inflection (t*) were obtained by nonlinear least-squares. A log transformation was also used to stabilize residual variance. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated for the estimated growth curve parameters and for body weights at 2, 3, 4.5, 6, 8 and 12 weeks of age. Heritabilities of estimated growth curve parameters (obtained with and without a log transformation, respectively) were: A (0.28±0.07, 0.28±0.07), r (0.35±0.07, 0.53±0.09) and t* (0.41±0.08, 0.44±0.08). Estimated genetic correlations suggest that t* may be useful in selecting for rapid early growth without increasing mature weight.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: IGF-1 ; Body weight ; Realized heritability ; Genetic correlation ; Mice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Five generations of divergent selection for plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and for 12-week body weight were carried out in mice, including randomly selected control lines for each trait. All lines were replicated once (12 lines in total). Each replicate line consisted of eight male and eight female parents per generation. Litter size was standardized to eight pups at birth. Mass selection was applied in the selected lines and within-family random selection in the control lines. Blood was taken from the orbital sinus of individual mice at 12 weeks of age for IGF-1 assay. Realized heritabilities were 0.10±0.01 for IGF-1 and 0.41 ± 0.02 for 12-week weight. The realized genetic correlation between IGF-1 and 12-week weight was 0.58 ± 0.01, with a phenotypic correlation of 0.38. Although the genetic correlation between IGF-1 and body weight in mice is moderately positive, 12-week weight responded 3.5 times as fast to weight selection as to selection for IGF-1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Mice ; Selection ; Growth ; Genetic correlation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Four lines of mice were formed from a common base population and selected for 37 generations for either increased 3-week weight (weaning weight), 6-week weight, 3–6 week gain, or maintained as a randomly bred control line. Realised heritability estimates for short-term (long-term) responses were 0.33±0.20 (0.07±0.10), 0.46±0.14 (0.26±0.09), 0.36±0.14 (0.24±0.11) for 3-week weight, 6-week weight and 3–6 week gain, respectively. Realised genetic correlations estimated from short-term (long-term) responses were 0.23±0.08 (0.35±0.10) between 3-week weight and 3–6 week gain; 0.82±0.04 (0.58±0.08) between 3-week weight and 6-week weight; and 0.81±0.04 (0.97±0.04) between 3–6 week gain and 6-week weight. The genetic correlation between 3-week weight and 6-week weight was asymmetric with a greater correlated response for 3-week weight when selecting for 6-week weight (1.06) than vice versa (0.63).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2006-01-16
    Description: A schematic representation of the generation and propagation processes for energetic particles of concern in solar terrestrial predictions is given. Particle precipitation at low, mid, and high altitudes is discussed with emphasis on prediction techniques. Methods given for testing of such techniques include traditional collaborations, enhanced collaborations, simulated prediction schemes, and field tests.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Solar-Terrest. Predictions Proc., Vol. 2; p 433-440
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: A pseudobreakup is a phenomenon similar to the substorm expansive phase onset, including an activation of an auroral arc, a burst of Pi2 micropulsations, and enhancement of the westward electrojet. However, these effects are weak and a pseudobreak is generally assumed to be very localized. The pseudobreakups are discussed based on simultaneous observations made in space and on the ground during the substorm growth phase. In the events studied the main features listed above are found, but the significance of the localization is unclear. The optical pseudobreakup, with associated magnetic perturbations, is highly localized, but simultaneously a wide local time sector of the auroral oval may be activated. The major differences between pseudobreakups and substorm expansive phase onsets are concluded to be the intensity and the development that follows. Careful study of pseudobreakups may help to determine phase initiation, and the role of the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling in the substorm process.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ESA, Substorms 1; p 111-116
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Using electron count rate data at geostationary orbit, daily energy spectra, extending from 30 keV to 15 MeV, have been developed for trapped relativistic electrons at 6.6 earth radii. These spectra have been used to model the flux of these electrons into the atmosphere at 120 km. Energy deposition calculations permit daily sources of HO(x) and NO(y) to be calculated at auroral and subauroral latitudes due to relativistic electron precipitation (REP) for the period June 13, 1979, through June 4, 1988. Both short-term and long-term source variations are quite large over the period considered. The results suggest that a significant contribution to the anomalously large and unexplained global O3 declines between 1979 and 1985 has been made by the catalytic destruction of O3 by odd nitrogen in the lower stratosphere at mid to high latitudes. The results also provide evidence for a clear and strong linkage between solar variability, the state of the magnetosphere, and the chemical climatological state of the middle and lower atmosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 2939-297
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Using three separate but related approaches, the question of whether the dynamic response of the magnetosphere to the solar wind input may be described by a low-order system of equations is examined. First, it is determined that the dimension of the subset (the attractor) in the high-dimensional magnetospheric phase space associated with the westward auroral electrojet (AL) index for some of the data sets compiled by Bargatze et al. (1985) is 4.0 + or - 0.2, seemingly independent of activity level. Second, direct modeling of the magnetosphere, considering the bulk properties of the tail plasma, leads to a system of equations that is similar to those previously reported as a dripping faucet model; here, the focus is specifically on the prediction of a natural frequency in this model. Finally, a peak is identified with the predicted frequency in power spectra of AL computed for intervals with both low and high activity. Peaks at other frequencies also appear in the spectra, and such resonances would be expected for a chaotic nonlinear oscillator. Combining these approaches it is concluded that at least some aspects of magnetospheric dynamics may be meaningfully modeled by low-dimensional sets of equations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 18; 151-154
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The relationship between relativistic electron flux variations at 6.6 R(E) and various published indices and solar wind properties is studied. An attempt is made to characterize the temporal and dimensional relationships between solar wind or magnetic indices and electron flux enhancements. It is shown that the solar wind speed upstream of the earth's magnetosphere is correlated with large increases in the flux of highly relativistic electrons at geostationary orbit.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 15133-15
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Plasmoids are closed magnetic-loop structures with entrained hot plasma which are inferred to occur on large spatial scales in space plasma systems. A model is proposed here to explain the brightening and rapid tailward movement of the barium cloud released by the AMPTE IRM spacecraft on May 13, 1985. The model suggests that a small-scale plasmoid was formed due to a predicted development of heavy-ion-induced tearing in the thinned near-tail plasma sheet. Thus, a plasmoid may actually have been imaged due to the emissions of the entrained plasma ions within the plasma bubble.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 17084-17
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Magnetotail observations from the ISEE 3 distant (1983) tail mission taken during the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop 8 (CDAW 8) A and G events are investigated. The ISEE 3 magnetic field, plasma, and energetic particle measurements taken in these two plasmoids have been analyzed and compared with various equilibrium structures and propagating waves/tail oscillation modes. Results indicate general agreement with either the closed-loop (Hones, 1977) or very small pitch angle flux rope (Hughes and Sibeck, 1987; Birn et al., 1989) models of plasmoid structure and poorer agreement with other hypotheses. Calculations based upon typical plasmoid and tail parameters are presented, indicating that the J and B force associated with the disconnected lobe field lines may be sufficient to accelerate plasmoids up to the speeds observed by ISEE 3. Overall, the energy expended in accelerating the plasmoids down the tail appears comparable to that dissipated in the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere. The study produces strong evidence in favor of the plasmoid model of substorm tail dynamics.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 15153-15
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