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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The significant ambiguities inherent in the determination of a particular vertical rain intensity profile from a given time profile of radar echo powers measured by a downward-looking (spaceborne or airborne) radar at a single attenuating frequency are well-documented. Indeed, one already knows that by appropriately varying the parameters of the reflectivity-rain-rate (Z - R) and/or attenuation-rain-rate (k - R) relationships, one can produce several substantially different hypothetical rain rate profiles which would have the same radar power profile. Imposing the additional constraint that the path-averaged rain-rate be a given fixed number does reduce the ambiguities but falls far short of eliminating them. While we now know how to generate as many mutually ambiguous rain-rate profiles from a given profile of received radar reflectivities as we like, there remains to produce a quantitative measure to assess how likely each of these profiles is, what the appropriate 'average' profile should be, and what the 'variance' of these multiple solutions is. Of course, in order to do this, one needs to spell out the stochastic constraints that can allow us to make sense of the words 'average' and 'variance' in a mathematically rigorous way. Such a quantitative approach would be particularly well-suited for such systems as the proposed Precipitation Radar of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Indeed, one would then be able to use the radar reflectivities measured by the TRMM radar from one particular look in order to estimate the most likely rain-rate profile that would have produced the measurements, as well as the uncertainty in the estimated rain-rates as a function of range. Such an optimal approach is described in this paper.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The precipitation radar planned for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) will be the first of its kind to measure vertical rainfall distributions from space. The TRMM radar will scan +/- 20 degrees across the nadir track. The range-gated backscattering powers over the entire scan swath will be measured, classified (rain versus no-rain), averaged, and processed to derive the rainfall rates. With this observation scheme, there are two major reasons why it is important to know the rain-perturbed backscattering coefficient of the surface background (tilde over sigma_0)...
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: American Meteorological Society, 26th Intl. Conf. on Radar Meteorology; Norman, OK; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: This paper addresses the problem of finding a parametric form for the raindrop size distribution (DSD) that(1) is an appropriate model for tropical rainfall, and (2) involves statistically independent parameters. Such a parameterization is derived in this paper. One of the resulting three "canonical" parameters turns out to vary relatively little, thus making the parameterization particularly useful for remote sensing applications. In fact, a new set of r drop-size-distribution-based Z-R and k-R relations is obtained. Only slightly more complex than power laws, they are very good approximations to the exact radar relations one would obtain using Mie scattering. The coefficients of the new relations are directly related to the shape parameters of the particular DSD that one starts with. Perhaps most important, since the coefficients are independent of the rain rate itself, the relations are ideally suited for rain retrieval algorithms.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology; Volume 35; No. 1; 3-13
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: The significant ambiguities inherent in the determination of a particular vertical rain intensity profile from a given time profile of radar echo powers measured by a downward-looking (spaceborne or airborne) radar at a single attenuating frequency are well documented. Indeed, one already knows that by appropriately varying the parameters of the reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) and/or attenuation-rain rate (k- R) relationships one can produce several substantially different rain-rate profiles that would produce the same radar power profile. Imposing the additional constraint that the path-averaged rain rate be a given fixed number does reduce the ambiguities but falls far short of eliminating them. While formulas to generate all mutually ambiguous rain-rate profiles from a given profile of received radar reflectivities have already been derived, there remains to be produced a quantitative measure to assess how likely each of these profiles is, what the appropriate "average" profile should be, and what the "variance" of these multiple solutions is. To do this, one needs to spell out the stochastic constraints that can allow us to make sense of the words "average" and "variance" in a mathematically rigorous way. Such a quantitative approach would be particularly well suited for such systems as the planned precipitation radar of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Indeed, one would then be able to use the radar reflectivities measured by the TRMM radar to estimate the rain-rate profile that would most likely have produced the measurements, as well as the uncertainty in the estimated rain rates as a function of range. Such an optimal approach is described in this paper.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology; Volume 35; No. 2; 213-228
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: This paper describes a computationally efficient nearly optimal Bayesian algorithm to estimate rain (and drop size distribution) profiles, given a radar reflectivity profile at a single attenuating wavelength. In addition to estimating the averages of all the mutually ambiguous combinations of rain parameters that can produce the data observed, the approach also calculates the n-ns uncertainty in its estimates (this uncertainty thus quantifies "the amount of ambiguity" in the "solution"). The paper also describes a more general approach that can make estimates based on a radar reflectivity profile together with an approximate measurement of the path-integrated attenuation, or a radar reflectivity profile and a set of passive microwave brightness temperatures. This more general "combined" algorithm is currently being adapted for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology; Volume 35; No. 2; 229-242
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Current passive-microwave rain-retrieval methods are largely based on databases built off-line using cloud models. The vertical distribution of hydrometeors within the cloud has a large impact on upwelling brightness temperatures ([31,[5]). Thus, a forward radiative transfer model can predict off-line the radiance associated with different rain scenarios. To estimate the rain from measured brightness temperatures, one simply looks for the rain scenario whose associated radiances are closest to the measurements. To understand the uncertainties in this process, we first study the dependence of the simulated brightness temperatures on different hydrometeor size distribution (DSD) models. We then analyze the marginal and joint distributions of the radiances observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and of those in the databases used in the TRMM rain retrievals. We finally calculate the covariances of the rain profiles and brightness temperatures in the TRMM passive-microwave database and derive a simple parametric model for the conditional uncertainty, given measured radiances. These results are used to characterize the uncertainty inherent in the passive-microwave retrieval.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: To support NASA s planned 20-year mission to provide sustained global precipitation measurement (EOS-9 Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)), a deployable antenna has been explored with an inflatable thin-membrane structure. This design uses a 5.3 5.3-m inflatable parabolic reflector with the electronically scanned, dual-frequency phased array feeds to provide improved rainfall measurements at 2.0-km horizontal resolution over a cross-track scan range of up to 37 , necessary for resolving intense, isolated storm cells and for reducing the beam-filling and spatial sampling errors. The two matched radar beams at the two frequencies (Ku and Ka bands) will allow unambiguous retrieval of the parameters in raindrop size distribution. The antenna is inflatable, using rigidizable booms, deployable chain-link supports with prescribed curvatures, a smooth, thin-membrane reflecting surface, and an offset feed technique to achieve the precision surface tolerance (0.2 mm RMS) for meeting the low-sidelobe requirement. The cylindrical parabolic offset-feed reflector augmented with two linear phased array feeds achieves dual-frequency shared-aperture with wide-angle beam scanning and very low sidelobe level of -30 dB. Very long Ku and Ka band microstrip feed arrays incorporating a combination of parallel and series power divider lines with cosine-over-pedestal distribution also augment the sidelobe level and beam scan. This design reduces antenna mass and launch vehicle stowage volume. The Ku and Ka band feed arrays are needed to achieve the required cross-track beam scanning. To demonstrate the inflatable cylindrical reflector with two linear polarizations (V and H), and two beam directions (0deg and 30deg), each frequency band has four individual microstrip array designs. The Ku-band array has a total of 166x2 elements and the Ka-band has 166x4 elements with both bands having element spacing about 0.65 lambda(sub 0). The cylindrical reflector with offset linear array feeds reduces the complexity from "NxN" transmit/receive (T/R) modules of a conventional planar-phased array to just "N" T/R modules. The antenna uses T/R modules with electronic phase-shifters for beam steering. The offset reflector does not provide poor cross-polarization like a double- curved offset reflector would, and it allows the wide scan angle in one plane required by the mission. Also, the cylindrical reflector with two linear array feeds provides dual-frequency performance with a single, shared aperture. The aperture comprises a reflective surface with a focal length of 1.89 m and is made from aluminized Kapton film. The reflective surface is of uniform thickness in the range of a few thousandths of an inch and is attached to the chain-link support structure via an adjustable suspension system. The film aperture rolls up, together with the chain-link structure, for launch and can be deployed in space by the deployment of the chain-link structure.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: NPO-40687 , NASA Tech Briefs, November 2008; 6 - 7
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An algorithm has been devised to reduce ground clutter in the data products of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), which is a nadir-looking radar instrument, in orbit around the Earth, that measures power backscattered by clouds as a function of distance from the instrument. Ground clutter contaminates the CPR data in the lowest 1 km of the atmospheric profile, heretofore making it impossible to use CPR data to satisfy the scientific interest in studying clouds and light rainfall at low altitude. The algorithm is based partly on the fact that the CloudSat orbit is such that the geodetic altitude of the CPR varies continuously over a range of approximately 25 km. As the geodetic altitude changes, the radar timing parameters are changed at intervals defined by flight software in order to keep the troposphere inside a data-collection time window. However, within each interval, the surface of the Earth continuously "scans through" (that is, it moves across) a few range bins of the data time window. For each radar profile, only few samples [one for every range-bin increment ((Delta)r = 240 m)] of the surface-clutter signature are available around the range bin in which the peak of surface return is observed, but samples in consecutive radar profiles are offset slightly (by amounts much less than (Delta)r) with respect to each other according to the relative change in geodetic altitude. As a consequence, in a case in which the surface area under examination is homogenous (e.g., an ocean surface), a sequence of consecutive radar profiles of the surface in that area contains samples of the surface response with range resolution (Delta)p much finer than the range-bin increment ((Delta)p 〈〈 r). Once the high-resolution surface response has thus become available, the profile of surface clutter can be accurately estimated by use of a conventional maximum-correlation scheme: A translated and scaled version of the high-resolution surface response is fitted to the observed low-resolution profile. The translation and scaling factors that optimize the fit in a maximum-correlation sense represent (1) the true position of the surface relative to the sampled surface peak and (2) the magnitude of the surface backscatter. The performance of this algorithm has been tested on CloudSat data acquired over an ocean surface. A preliminary analysis of the test data showed a surface-clutter-rejection ratio over flat surfaces of 〉10 dB and a reduction of the contaminated altitude over ocean from about 1 km to about 0.5 km (over the ocean). The algorithm has been embedded in CloudSat L1B processing as of Release 04 (July 2007), and the estimated flat surface clutter is removed in L2B-GEOPROF product from the observed profile of reflectivity (see CloudSat product documentation for details and performance at http://www.cloudsat.cira.colostate.edu/ dataSpecs.php?prodid=1).
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: NPO-44873 , NASA Tech Briefs, December 2008; 6-7
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), the primary science instrument of the CloudSat Mission, is a 94-GHz nadir-looking radar that measures the power backscattered by clouds as a function of distance from the radar. This instrument will acquire a global time series of vertical cloud structure at 500-m vertical resolution and 1.4-km horizontal resolution. CPR will operate in a short-pulse mode and will yield measurements at a minimum detectable sensitivity of -28 dBZ.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: 2006 CIE International Conference proceedings on Radar; 16-19 Oct. 2006; Shanghai; China
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Knowledge of the global distribution of the vertical velocity of precipitation is important in in the study of energy transportation in the atmosphere, the climate and weather. Such knowledge can only be directly acquired with the use of spaceborne Doppler precipitation radars. Although the high relative speed of the radar with respect to the rainfall particles introduces significant broadening in the Doppler spectrum, recent studies have shown that the average vertical velocity can be measured to acceptable accuracy levels by appropriate selection of radar parameters. Furthermore, methods to correct for specific errors arising from NUBF effects and pointing uncertainties have recently been developed. In this paper we will present the results of the trade studies on the performances of a spaceborne Doppler radar with different system parameters configurations.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: SPIE Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Environment, and Space; 8-12 Nov. 2007; Honolulu, HI; United States
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