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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An analysis of the time series of MODIS-based and AERONET aerosol records over Beijing reveals two distinct periods, before and after 2007. The MODIS data from both the Terra and Aqua satellites were processed with the new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. A comparison of MAIAC and AERONET AOT shows that whereas MAIAC consistently underestimated peak AOT values by 10-20% in the prior period, the bias mostly disappears after mid-2007. Independent analysis of the AERONET dataset reveals little or no change in the effective radii of the fine and coarse fractions and of the Angstrom exponent. At the same time, it shows an increasing trend in the single scattering albedo, by approx.0.02 in 9 years. As MAIAC was using the same aerosol model for the entire 2000-2010 period, the decrease in AOT bias after 2007 can be explained only by a corresponding decrease of aerosol absorption caused by a reduction in local black carbon emissions. The observed changes correlate in time with the Chinese government's broad measures to improve air quality in Beijing during preparations for the Summer Olympics of 2008.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Large fine mode (sub-micron radius) dominated aerosols in size distributions retrieved from AERONET have been observed after fog or low-altitude cloud dissipation events. These column-integrated size distributions have been obtained at several sites in many regions of the world, typically after evaporation of low altitude cloud such as stratocumulus or fog. Retrievals with cloud processed aerosol are sometimes bimodal in the accumulation mode with the larger size mode often approx.0.4 - 0.5 microns radius (volume distribution); the smaller mode typically approx.0.12 to aprrox.0.20 microns may be interstitial aerosol that were not modified by incorporation in droplets and/or aerosol that are less hygroscopic in nature. Bimodal accumulation mode size distributions have often been observed from in situ measurements of aerosols that have interacted with clouds, and AERONET size distribution retrievals made after dissipation of cloud or fog are in good agreement with particle sizes measured by in situ techniques for cloud-processed aerosols. Aerosols of this type and large size range (in lower concentrations) may also be formed by cloud processing in partly cloudy conditions and may contribute to the shoulder of larger size particles in the accumulation mode retrievals, especially in regions where sulfate and other soluble aerosol are a significant component of the total aerosol composition. Observed trends of increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) as fine mode radius increased suggests higher AOD in the near cloud environment and therefore greater aerosol direct radiative forcing than typically obtained from remote sensing, due to bias towards sampling at low cloud fraction.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.JA.5476.2011
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly 2003; 7-11 Apr. 2003; Nice; France
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Desert dust and marine aerosols are receiving increased scientific attention because of their prevalence on intercontinental scales and their potentially large effects on Earth radiation and climate, as well as on other aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The relatively large size of desert dust and marine aerosols produces scattering phase functions that are strongly forward- peaked. Hence, Sun photometry and pyrheliometry of these aerosols are more subject to diffuse-light errors than is the case for smaller aerosols. Here we quantify these diffuse-light effects for common Sun photometer and pyrheliometer fields of view (FOV), using a data base on dust and marine aerosols derived from (1) AERONET measurements of sky radiance and solar beam transmission and (2) in situ measurements of aerosol layer size distribution and chemical composition. Accounting for particle non-sphericity is important when deriving dust size distribution from both AERONET and in situ aerodynamic measurements. We express our results in terms of correction factors that can be applied to Sun photometer and pyrheliometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD). We find that the corrections are negligible (less than approximately 1% of AOD) for Sun photometers with narrow FOV (half-angle eta less than degree), but that they can be as large as 10% of AOD at 354 nm wavelength for Sun photometers with eta = 1.85 degrees. For pyrheliometers (which can have eta up to approximately 2.8 degrees), corrections can be as large as 16% at 354 nm. We find that AOD correction factors are well correlated with AOD wavelength dependence (hence Angstrom exponent). We provide best-fit equations for determining correction factors from Angstrom exponents of uncorrected AOD spectra, and we demonstrate their application to vertical profiles of multiwavelength AOD.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: An analysis of the time series of MODIS-based and AERONET aerosol records over Beijing reveals two distinct periods, before and after 2007. The MODIS data from both the Terra and Aqua satellites were processed with the new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. A comparison of MAIAC and AERONET AOT shows that whereas MAIAC consistently underestimated peak AOT values by 10-20% in the prior period, the bias mostly disappears after mid- 2007. Independent analysis of the AERONET dataset reveals little or no change in the effective radii of the fine and coarse fractions and of the Angstrom exponent. At the same time, it shows an increasing trend in the single scattering albedo, by ~0.02 in 9 years. As MAIAC was using the same aerosol model for the entire 2000-2010 period, the decrease in AOT bias after 2007 can be explained only by a corresponding decrease of aerosol absorption caused by a reduction in local black carbon emissions. The observed changes correlate in time with the Chinese government's broad measures to improve air quality in Beijing during preparations for the Summer Olympics of 2008.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.JA.5779.2011 , Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 38; L1080
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-26
    Description: Aerosol mixtures composed of coarse mode desert dust combined with fine mode combustion generated aerosols (from fossil fuel and biomass burning sources) were investigated at three locations that are in and/or downwind of major global aerosol emission source regions. Multiyear monitoring data at Aerosol Robotic Network sites in Beijing (central eastern China), Kanpur (Indo-Gangetic Plain, northern India), and Ilorin (Nigeria, Sudanian zone of West Africa) were utilized to study the climatological characteristics of aerosol optical properties. Multiyear climatological averages of spectral single scattering albedo (SSA) versus fine mode fraction (FMF) of aerosol optical depth at 675 nm at all three sites exhibited relatively linear trends up to 50% FMF. This suggests the possibility that external linear mixing of both fine and coarse mode components (weighted by FMF) dominates the SSA variation, where the SSA of each component remains relatively constant for this range of FMF only. However, it is likely that a combination of other factors is also involved in determining the dynamics of SSA as a function of FMF, such as fine mode particles adhering to coarse mode dust. The spectral variation of the climatological averaged aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) was nearly linear in logarithmic coordinates over the wavelength range of 440-870 nm for both the Kanpur and Ilorin sites. However, at two sites in China (Beijing and Xianghe), a distinct nonlinearity in spectral AAOD in logarithmic space was observed, suggesting the possibility of anomalously strong absorption in coarse mode aerosols increasing the 870 nm AAOD.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.JA.4638.2011 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 115
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