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  • Meteorology and Climatology  (4)
  • J NO 2  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: J NO 2 ; NO2 photolysis ; atmospheric photochemistry ; J NO 2measurement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract An instrument, specifically designed for measurements from a balloon platform in the stratosphere, has been used to obtain ground-level values of the atmospheric photodissociation coefficient of nitrogen dioxide, J NO 2.A typical clear-sky value is 8.0×10-3 s-1 when the solar zenith angle is 40°. Measurements were made as a function of solar zenith angle and correlated with a calibrated Eppley UV radiometer. It is shown that J NO 2may be expressed as a simple function of the radiometer output so that estimates of J NO 2can be made using just an upward looking radiometer to an accuracy of about 20%. The measurements are also found to be in good agreement with calculations of J NO 2using a simplified isotropic multiple scattering computer routine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: J NO 2 ; NO2 photolysis ; atmospheric photochemistry ; J NO 2 measurement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The photodissociation coefficient of NO2, J NO 2, has been measured from a balloon platform in the stratosphere. Results from two balloon flights are reported. High Sun values of J NO 2 measured were 10.5±0.3 and 10.3±0.3×10-3 s-1 at 24 and 32 km respectively. The decrease in J NO 2 at sunset was monitored in both flights. The measurements are found to be in good agreement with calculations of J NO 2 using a simplified isotropic multiple scattering computer routine.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: During the NASA Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) enhanced mixing ratios of nitric oxide were measured in the anvils of thunderstorms and in clear air downwind of storm systems on flights of a Wl3-57F high-altitude aircraft. Mixing ratios greater than l0 - 20 times background were readily observed over distances of 25-120 km due to lightning activity. In many of the Florida storms deposition of NO occurred up to near the tropopause but major deposition usually occurred 1 - 2 km below the tropopause, or mostly within the visible anvil volume formed prior to storm decay. Observations from two storms of very different anvil size and electrical activity allowed estimates of the total mass of NO, vented to the middle and upper troposphere. Using the cloud-to ground (CG) flash accumulations from the National Lightning Detection Network, climatological intra-cloud (IC) to CG ratios, and assuming that CG and IC flashes were of equivalent efficiency for NO production, the ranges of production per flash for a moderate-sized and a large storm were (0.51 - 1.0) x l0(exp 26) and (2.3 - 3.1) x 10(exp 26) molecules NO/flash, respectively. Using the recently determined average global flash rate of 44 8, a gross extrapolation of these two storms to represent possible global annual production rates yield 1.6 - 3.2 and 7.3 - 9.9 Tg(N)/yr, respectively. If the more usual assumption is made that IC efficiency is l/l0th that of CG activity, the ranges of production for the moderate-sized and large storm were (1.3 - 2.7) x l0(exp 26) and (6.0 - 8.1) x l0(exp 26) molecules NO/CG flash, respectively. The estimates from the large storm may be high because there is indirect evidence that the IC/CG ratio was larger than would be derived from climatology. These two storms and others studied did not have flash rates that scaled as approx. H(sup 5) where H is the cloud top altitude. The observed CG flash accumulations and NO(x) mass production estimate for the month of July over the Florida area were compared with a representative 3D global Chemistry-Transport Model (CTMJ that uses the Price et al. lightning parameterization. For two land grid points representing the Florida peninsula the model compared well with the observations: CG flash rates were low by only a factor of approx. 2. When the model grid points included the coastal regions of Florida the flash accumulations were lower than observed by a factor of 3.4 - 4.6. It is recommended that models using the Price et al. parameterization allow any global coastal grid point to maintain the land rather than the marine flash rate parameterization. The convection in this CTM underestimated the actual cloud top heights over Florida by 1 - 2 km and thus the total lightning flash rates and the altitude range of reactive nitrogen deposition. Broad scale (20 - 120 km) median mixing ratios of NO within anvils over Florida were significantly larger than in storms previously investigated over Colorado and New Mexico.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The chemical composition of the lowermost stratosphere exhibits both spatial and temporal variability depending upon the relative strength of (1) isentropic transport from the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), (2) diabatic descent from the midlatitude and northern midlatitude stratosphere followed by equatorward isentropic transport, and (3) diabatic ascent from the troposphere through convection. In situ measurements made in the lowermost stratosphere over Florida illustrate the additional impact of equatorward flow around the monsoon anticyclone. This flow carries, along with older stratospheric air, the distinct signature of deep midlatitude convection. We use simultaneous in situ measurements of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), total odd nitrogen (NOy), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) in the framework of a simple box model to quantify the composition of the air sampled in the lowermost stratosphere during the mission on the basis of tracer mixing ratios ascribed to the source regions for these transport pathways. The results show that in the summer, convection has a significant impact on the composition of air in the lowermost stratosphere, being the dominant source of water vapor up to the 380 K isentrope. The implications of these results extend from the potential for heterogeneous ozone loss resulting from the increased frequency and lifetime of cirrus near the local tropopause, to air with increased water vapor that as part of the equatorward flow associated with the North American monsoon can become part of the general circulation.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 112
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Measurements of ozone, reactive carbon and nitrogen, and other trace constituents from flights of the NASA WB-57F aircraft in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere reveal that convection in the tropics can present a complex mix of surface-emitted constituents right up to the altitude of the lapse rate tropopause. At higher latitudes over the southern US, the strongest transport signal, in terms of constituent mixing ratios, occurred in the potential temperature range of 340-350K or approximately over the altitude range of 9-11km. Weaker convective signals were also seen up to near the tropopause. There was no evidence of convective transport directly into the lower stratosphere from these flights. $CPY 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Atmospheric Environment (ISSN 1352-2310); 38; 9; 1259-1274
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The July 2004 CRYSTAL-FACE field program, based from Key West, Florida, showed that long-lived thin tropopause cirrus (TTC) layers were common above thunderstorm anvils. This paper investigates the origins of these cloud using airborne measurements. The horizontal dimensions of the TTC were nearly identical to the convectively formed anvil beneath. However, the TTC did not appear to have originated from convective detrainment. Rather it appears to have formed in stably stratified air derived from high altitudes near the tropopause. The TTC was separated from the anvil by approx. 1 km, it lacked precipitation particles, and it was strongly depleted in HDO. Nonetheless, compared to surrounding clear air near the tropopause, the TTC was enriched in moisture and trace gases in a manner consistent with it having mixed with the same convective airmass that produced the anvil. Unlike surrounding air, the TTC had embedded a monochromatic gravity wave with a wavelength of 2 km and an amplitude of several hundred meters. Combined, this evidence, supported by a photograph from CRYSTAL-FACE, leads to the conjecture that the TTC originated as a pileus cloud layer, which formed near the tropopause ahead of vigorous convective uplift. We hypothesize that the pileus was penetrated by the convection, moistened through mixing, and once the convection subsided, it was sustained by radiative cooling due to the presence of the anvil layer beneath.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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