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  • INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY  (6)
  • Meteorology and Climatology  (1)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: NASA has initiated the Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) for the study of the chemistry of the global troposphere. One phase of GTE, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE), is concerned with the development and validation of measurement techniques for trace species which play important roles in the tropospheric chemical cycles. In connection with CITE 1 an intercomparison of instruments is conducted for the measurement of CO, NO, and OH. These species have been identified as critical for an understanding of homogeneous gas-phase chemistry in the troposphere. The present paper provides an operational overview of the first of three instrument intercomparison field missions conducted as part of GTE/CITE 1. The missions include one ground-based and two airborne missions, and were designed to characterize current capability of measuring ambient levels of CO, NO, and OH.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 12
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Ultrahigh resolution (0.007 per cm) atmospheric solar absorption spectra that have been obtained from a tunable infrared heterodyne radiometer are discussed. The radiometer was developed for ground based observations in the 8-12 micron region, and tunability is achieved through the use of Pb-salt semiconductor laser local oscillators. Spectra have been obtained in a piecewise fashion from 9.1 to 11.1 microns using laser emission modes that exhibit characteristics suitable for local-oscillator operation. Spectra showing absorption features of HNO3, O3, CO2, and H2O are presented along with comparisons of experimental and synthetic spectra calculated using a line-by-line atmospheric transmission model.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Optical Engineering; 21; Mar
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Doppler effect induced small spectral line shifts measured by modified duochromator in MPD arc jet
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: ; ADEMIE DES SCIENCES
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results from an intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was held at Wallops Island, VA, in July 1983. Instruments intercompared included a laser differential absorption method and three grab sample/gas chromatograph methods. The intercomparison consisted of simultaneous measurements of ambient levels of CO and controlled injections of CO from a common manifold. Results from the techniques exhibited a high degree of correlation among themselves and with changes in the CO mixing ratio. The results suggested a level of agreement among the techniques of about 15 percent. However, a day-to-day bias between the techniques was observed, which resulted in differences between techniques as large as 38 percent.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 12
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results from an intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of nitric oxide (NO) are discussed. The intercomparison was part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and was conducted at Wallops Island, VA, in July 1983. Instruments intercompared included a laser-induced fluorescence system and two chemiluminescence instruments. The intercomparisons were performed with ambient air at NO mixing ratios ranging from 10 to 60 pptv and NO-enriched ambient air at mixing ratios from 20 to 170 pptv. All instruments sampled from a common manifold. The techniques exhibited a high degree of correlation among themselves and with changes in the NO mixing ratio. Agreement among the three techniques was placed at approximately + or - 30 percent. Within this level of agreement, no artifacts or species interferences were identified.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 12
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Laboratory experiments to quantify the global production of NOx (NO + NO2) in the troposphere due to atmospheric lightning and biogenic activity in soil are presented. These laboratory experiments, as well as other studies, suggest that the global production of NOx by lightning probably ranges between 2 and 20 MT(N)y-1 of NO and is strongly dependent on the total energy deposited by lightning, a quantity not well-known. In our laboratory experiments, nitrifying micro-organisms is soil were found to be a significant source of both NO and nitrous oxide (N2O). The measured production ratio of NO to N2O averaged 2-3 for oxygen partial pressures of 0.5-10%. Extrapolating these laboratory measurements to the global scale, which is somewhat risky, suggests that nitrifying micro-organisms in soil may account for as much as 10 MT(N) y-1 of NO. Additional experiments with denitrifying micro-organisms gave an NO to N2O production ratio ranging from 2 to 4 for an oxygen partial pressure of 0.5% and a ratio of less than unity for oxygen partial pressures ranging from 1 to 20%. The production of NO and N2O, normalized with respect to micro-organism number indicates that the production of both NO and N2O by denitrifying micro-organisms is at least an order of magnitude less than production by nitrifying micro-organisms for the micro-organisms studied.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Atmospheric environment (ISSN 0004-6981); Volume 18; 9; 1797-804
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A tunable-diode-laser radiometer with a spectral resolution of 0.007/cm was used to obtain IR solar absorption spectra in the 9.1-11.1 micron region. Spectra exhibiting absorption by HNO3, CO2, O3, and H2O were obtained in a piecewise manner using emission modes from a single Pb-salt laser local oscillator. The measured spectra were compared to synthetic atmospheric spectra calculated using a line-by-line model. The results demonstrate that high-resolution IR solar absorption spectroscopy and atmospheric extinction measurements can be routinely performed over wide spectral regions using semiconductor lasers.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Atmospheric transmission; April 21-22, 1981; Washington, DC
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