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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The solar cycle (SC) effect in the lower atmosphere has been linked observationally to the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO), which is generated primarily by small-scale gravity waves. Salby and Callaghan analyzed the QBO observations covering more than 40 years and found that it contains a relatively large SC signature at 20 km. Following up on a 2D study with our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), we discuss here a 3D study in which we simulated the QBO under the influence of the SC. For a SC period of 10 years, the amplitude of the relative variations of radiative forcing is taken to vary from 0.2% at the surface to 2% at 50 km to 20% at 100 km and above. This model produces in the lower stratosphere a relatively large modulation of the QBO, which appears to be related to the SC and is in qualitative agreement with the observations. Further studies are needed, (1) to determine whether the effect is real and the results are robust and (2) to explore the mechanism(s) that may amplify the SC effect. Quasi-decadal oscillations, generated internally by the QBO interacting with the seasonal cycles, may interfere with or aid the SC effect.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: In preparation for the measurements from the TIMED mission and coordinated ground based observations, we discuss results for the planetary waves (PWs) that appear in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM). The present model accounts for a tropospheric heat source in the zonal mean (m = 0), which reproduces qualitatively the observed zonal jets near the tropopause and the accompanying reversal in the latitudinal temperature variations. We discuss the PWs that are solely generated internally, i.e., without the explicit excitation sources related to tropospheric convection or topography. Our analysis shows that PWs are not produced when the zonally averaged heat source into the atmosphere is artificially suppressed, and that the PWs generally are significantly weaker when the tropospheric source is not applied. Instabilities associated with the zonal mean temperature, pressure and wind fields, which still need to be explored, are exciting PWs that have amplitudes in the mesosphere comparable to those observed. Three classes of PWs are generated in the NSM. (1) Rossby waves, (2) Rossby gravity waves propagating westward at low latitudes, and (3) Eastward propagating equatorial Kelvin waves. A survey of the PWs reveals that the largest wind amplitudes tend to occur below 80 km in the winter hemisphere, but above that altitude they occur in the summer hemisphere where the amplitudes can approach 50 meters per second. It is shown that the non-migrating tides in the mesosphere, generated by non-linear coupling between migrating tides and PWs, are significantly larger for the model with the tropospheric heat source.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: We demonstrated that, in our model, non-linear interactions between planetary waves (PW) and migrating tides could generate in the upper mesosphere non-migrating tides with amplitudes comparable to those observed. The Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) we employ incorporates Hines Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW), which affect in numerous ways the dynamics of the mesosphere. The latitudinal (seasonal) reversals in the temperature and zonal circulation, which are largely caused by GWs (Lindzen, 198l), filter the PWs and contribute to the instabilities that generate the PWs. The PWs in turn are amplified by the momentum deposition of upward propagating GWs, as are the migrating tides. The GWs thus affect significantly the migrating tides and PWs, the building blocks of non-migrating tides. In the present paper, we demonstrate that GW filtering also contributes to the non-linear coupling between PWs and tides. Two computer experiments are presented to make this point. In one, we simply turn off the GW source to show the effect. In the second case, we demonstrate the effect by selectively suppressing the momentum source for the m = 0 non-migrating tides.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: We discuss results from a modeling study with our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) that specifically deals with the non-migrating tides generated in the mesosphere. The NSM extends from the ground to the thermosphere, incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GWs), and it describes the major dynamical features of the atmosphere including the wave driven equatorial oscillations (QBO and SAO), and the seasonal variations of tides and planetary waves. Accounting solely for the excitation sources of the solar migrating tides, the NSM generates through dynamical interactions also non-migrating tides in the mesosphere that are comparable in magnitude to those observed. Large non-migrating tides are produced in the diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations for the zonal mean (m = 0) and in the semidiurnal oscillation for m = 1. In general, significant eastward and westward propagating tides are generated for all the zonal wave numbers m = 1 to 4. To identify the cause, the NSM is run without the solar heating for the zonal mean (m = 0), and the amplitudes of the resulting non-migrating tides are then negligibly small. In this case, the planetary waves are artificially suppressed, which are generated in the NSM through instabilities. This leads to the conclusion that the non-migrating tides are generated through non-linear interactions between planetary waves and migrating tides, as Forbes et al. and Talaat and Liberman had proposed. In an accompanying paper, we present results from numerical experiments, which indicate that gravity wave filtering contributes significantly to produce the non-linear coupling that is involved.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: This chapter is concerned with two types of radiometric measurements essential to verify atmospheric correction algorithms and to calibrate vicariously satellite ocean color sensors. The first type is a photometric measurement of the direct solar beam to determine the optical thickness of the atmosphere. The intensity of the solar beam can be measured directly, or obtained indirectly from measurements of diffuse global upper hemispheric irradiance. The second type is a measurement of the solar aureole and sky radiance distribution using a CCD camera, or a scanning radiometer viewing in and perpendicular to the solar principal plane. From the two types of measurements, the optical properties of aerosols, highly variable in space and time, can be derived. Because of the high variability, the aerosol properties should be known at the time of satellite overpass. Atmospheric optics measurements, however, are not easy to perform at sea, from a ship or any platform. This complicates the measurement protocols and data analysis. Some instrumentation cannot be deployed at sea, and is limited to island and coastal sites. In the following, measurement protocols are described for radiometers commonly used to measure direct atmospheric transmittance and sky radiance, namely standard sun photometers, fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers, automated sky scanning systems, and CCD cameras. Methods and procedures to analyze and quality control the data are discussed, as well as proper measurement strategies for evaluation of atmospheric correction algorithms and satellite-derived ocean color.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: In Situ Aerosol Optical Thinkness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, and and Data QC and Analysis; 26-42; NASA/TM-2001-209982
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: We present results from a nonlinear, 3D, time dependent numerical spectral model (NSM), which extends from the ground up into the thermosphere and incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). Our focal point is the mesosphere that is dominated by wave interactions. We discuss diurnal and semi-diurnal tides ill the present paper (Part 1) and planetary waves in the companion paper (Part 2). To provide an understanding of the seasonal variations of tides, in particular with regard to gravity wave processes, numerical experiments are performed that lead to the following conclusions: 1. The large semiannual variations in tile diurnal tide (DT), with peak amplitudes observed around equinox, are produced primarily by GW interactions that involve, in part, planetary waves. 2. The DT, like planetary waves, tends to be amplified by GW momentum deposition, which reduces also the vertical wavelength. 3.Variations in eddy viscosity associated with GW interactions tend to peak in late spring and early fall and call also influence the DT. 4. The semidiurnal semidiurnal tide (SDT), and its phase in particular, is strongly influenced by the mean zonal circulation. 5. The SDT, individually, is amplified by GW's. But the DT filters out GW's such that the wave interaction effectively reduces the amplitude of the SDT, effectively producing a strong nonlinear interaction between the DT and SDT. 6.) Planetary waves generated internally by baroclinic instability and GW interaction produce large amplitude modulations of the DT and SDT.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: We present an extension for the 2D (zonal mean) version of our Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations and the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO). Our earlier model reproduced the salient features of the mean zonal circulation in the middle atmosphere, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. In the present model we incorporate also tropospheric heating to reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation that affects significantly the dynamics of the stratosphere as Dunkerton had pointed out. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. The QBO period in the model is 30 months (mo), which is conducive to synchronize this oscillation with the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. Quadratic non-linearities generate interseasonal variations to produce a complicated pattern of variability associated with the QBO. The computed temperature amplitudes for the SAO and QBO are in substantial agreement with observations at equatorial and extratropical latitudes. At high latitudes, however, the observed QBO amplitudes are significantly larger, which may be a signature of propagating planetary waves not included in the present model. The assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium not being imposed, we find that the effects from the vertical Coriolis force associated with the equatorial oscillations are large for the vertical winds and significant for the temperature variations even outside the tropics but are relatively small for the zonal winds.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Quasi-decadal oscillations (QDO) have been observed in the stratosphere and have been linked to the equatorial Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and to the 11-year solar activity cycle. With the use of a 2D version of our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) for gravity waves (GW), we demonstrate that beat periods between 9 and 11 years can be generated by the QBO as it interacts through GW filtering with the Annual Oscillation (AO) and Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO). Results are discussed from computations covering up to 50 years, and our analyses leads to the following conclusions. The QDO as a stand-alone signature is largely confined to the upper mesosphere. Its largest signature appears in the form of amplitude modulations of the QBO, AO and SAO, and these extend into the lower stratosphere. The downward control that characterizes the QBO apparently comes into play, and the longer time constants for diffusion and radiative loss at lower altitudes facilitate the QDO response. Although excited by the QBO, which is confined to low latitudes, the QDO is shown to extend to high latitudes. The effect is particularly large for the QBO with period around 33.5 month (near the upper limit of observations), which interacts with the SAO to produce a hemispherically symmetric QDO. Our analysis indicates that the QDO is transferred to high latitudes by the meridional circulation, which prominently exhibits this periodicity particularly in the amplitude modulation of the AO.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: In the polar region of the upper mesosphere, horizontal wind oscillations have been observed with periods around 10 hours (Hernandez et al., 1992). Such waves are generated in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) and appear to be inertio gravity waves (IGW). Like the planetary waves (PW) in the model, the IGWs are generated by instabilities that arise in the mean zonal circulation. In addition to stationary waves for m = 0, eastward and westward propagating waves for m = 1 to 4 appear above 70 km that grow in magnitude up to about 110 km, having periods between 9 and 11 hours. The m = 1 westward propagating IGWs have the largest amplitudes, which can reach at the poles 30 m/s. Like PWs, the IGWs are intermittent but reveal systematic seasonal variations, with the largest amplitudes occurring generally in winter and spring. The IGWs propagate upward with a vertical wavelength of about 20 km.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: We present results from a non-linear, 3D, time dependent numerical spectral model (NSM) which extends from the ground up into the thermosphere and incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). Our focal point is the mesosphere where wave interactions are playing a dominant role. We discuss planetary waves in the present paper and diurnal and semi-diurnal tides in the companion paper. Without external time dependent energy or momentum sources, planetary waves (PWs) are generated in the model for zonal wavenumbers 1 to 4, which have amplitudes in the mesosphere above 50 km as large as 30 m/s and periods between 2 and 50 days. The waves are generated primarily during solstice conditions, which indicates that the baroclinic instability (associated with the GW driven reversal in the latitudinal temperature gradient) is playing an important role. Results from a numerical experiment show that GWs are also involved directly in generating the PWs. For the zonal wavenumber m = 1, the predominant wave periods in summer are around 4 days and in winter between 6 and 10 days. For m = 2, the periods are in summer and close to 2.5 and 3.5 days respectively For m = 3, 4 the predominant wave periods are in both seasons close to two days. The latter waves have the characteristics of Rossby gravity waves with meridional winds at equatorial latitudes. A common feature of the PWs (m = 1 to 4) generated in summer and winter is that their vertical wavelengths throughout the mesosphere are large which indicates that the waves are not propagating freely but are generated throughout the region. Another common feature is that the PWs propagate preferentially westward in summer and eastward in winter, being launched from the westward and eastward zonal winds that prevail respectively in summer and winter altitudes below 80 km. During spring and fall, for m = 1 and 2 eastward propagating long period PWs are generated that are launched from the smaller eastward zonal winds that prevail in these seasons. PWs generated in the model produce large amplitude modulations of the diurnal tides at altitudes above 80 km and contribute to their seasonal variations.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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