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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: During post-flight processing of STS-116, damage to crewmember Robert Curbeam's Phase VI Glove Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment was discovered. This damage consisted of: loss of RTV-157 palm pads on the thumb area on the right glove, a 0.75 inch cut in the Vectran adjacent to the seam and thumb pad (single event cut), constituting the worst glove damage ever recorded for the U.S. space program. The underlying bladder and restraint were found not be damaged by this event. Evaluation of glove damage found that the outer Vectran fibers were sliced as a result of contact with a sharp edge or pinch point rather than general wear or abrasion (commonly observed on the RTV pads). Damage to gloves was also noted on STS-118 and STS-120. One potential source of EMU glove damages are sharp crater lips on external handrails, generated by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts. In this paper, the results of a hypervelocity impact (HVI) test program on representative and actual ISS handrails are presented. These tests were performed in order to characterize impact damage profiles on ISS handrails and evaluate alternatives for limiting risk to future missions. It was determined that both penetrating and non-penetrating MMOD impacts on aluminum and steel ISS handrails are capable of generating protruding crater profiles which exceed the heights required for EMU glove abrasion risk by an order of magnitude. Testing demonstrated that flexible overwraps attached to the outside of existing handrails are capable of limiting contact between hazardous crater formations and crewmember gloves during extravehicular activity (EVA). Additionally, replacing metallic handrails with high strength, low ductility, fiber reinforced composite materials would limit the formation of protruding crater lips on new ISS modules.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-17548 , 5th European Conference on Space Debris; Mar 30, 2009 - Apr 02, 2009; Darmstadt; Germany
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: NASA has deemed it necessary to perform the Toxicity Test (offgassing of toxic products) on all non-metallic materials proposed for use in habitable environments onboard the Shuttle and International Space Station flS,!J. This requirement stems from the desire to maintain a healthy, breathable atmosphere for the astronauts. As Shuttle missions have lengthened and with the habitation of the International Space Station, the need for understanding and controlling the contaminants in breathable atmospheres has increased. The increased duration of humans in space present two concerns to the astronauts with regard to their breathing air: 1. Breathing the on-board air. 2. Improved cleaning/filtering of existing air. Trends using existing toxicity data for materials and an understanding of the air cleaning/filtering capabilities in relation to Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC) of offgassed components are explored. Recommendations are made for materials selection practices that should be followed to ensure a safe and healthy breathing environment for astronauts aboard these long term projects. The importance and relevance of Toxicity testing and materials selection in conjunction with the new NASA missions of creating a human presence on the Moon and traveling to Mars are described.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: National Space and Missile Materials Symposium; Jun 27, 2005 - Jul 01, 2005; Summerlin, NV; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Charging System Analyzer Program (Nascap-2K) is a comprehensive update, revision, and extension of several NASA and Air Force codes for predicting electrical charging of spacecraft. Nascap-2K integrates the capabilities and models included in four independent programs: NASCAP/LEO for low-Earth orbits, NASCAP/GEO for geosynchronous orbits, POLAR for auroral charging in polar orbits, and DynaPAC (Dynamic Plasma Analysis Code) for time-dependent plasma interactions. While each of the earlier codes works well for the range of problems for which it was designed, by today s standards these codes are difficult to learn, cumbersome to use, and overly restrictive in their geometric modeling capabilities. Nascap-2K incorporates these models into a single software package that includes spacecraft surface modeling, spatial gridding, environmental specifications, calculating scripting, and post-processing analysis and visualization. The provided material properties database includes values from earlier programs as well as values from recent measurements. Development of Nascap-2K continues with future capabilities to include interactions with dense plasma such as those produced by electric propulsion.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: MFS-31939-1/2056-1 , NASA Tech Briefs, November 2006; 17
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: ARC-15345-1 , NASA Tech Briefs, February 2006; 23
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Safe and reliable seal materials for high-pressure oxygen systems sometimes appear to be extinct species when sought out by oxygen systems designers. Materials that seal well are easy to find, but these materials are typically incompatible with oxygen, especially in cryogenic liquid form. This incompatibility can result in seals that leak, or much worse, seals that easily ignite and burn during use. Materials that are compatible with oxygen are easy to find, such as the long list of compatible metals, but these metallic materials are limiting as seal materials. A material that seals well and is oxygen compatible has been the big game in the designer's safari. Scientists at the Materials Combustion Research Facility (MCRF), part of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are constantly searching for better materials and processes to improve the safety of oxygen systems. One focus of this effort is improving the characteristics of polymers used in the presence of an oxygen enriched environment. Very few systems can be built which contain no polymeric materials; therefore, materials which have good impact resistance, low heat of combustion, high auto-ignition temperature and that maintain good mechanical properties are essential. The scientists and engineers at the Materials Combustion Research Facility, in cooperation with seal suppliers, are currently testing a new formulation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Brass filler. This Brass-filled PTFE is showing great promise as a seal and seat material for high pressure oxygen systems. Early research has demonstrated very encouraging results, which could rank this material as one of the best fluorinated polymers ever tested. This paper will compare the data obtained for Brass-filled PTFE with other fluorinated polymers, such as TFE-Teflon (PTFE) , Kel-F 81, Viton A, Viton A-500, Fluorel , and Algoflon . A similar metal filled fluorinated polymer, Salox-M , was tested in comparison to Brass-filled PTFE to demonstrate the importance of the metal chosen and relative percentage of filler. General conclusions on the oxygen compatibility of this formulation are drawn, with an emphasis on comparing and contrasting the materials performance to the performance of the current state-of-the-art oxygen compatible polymers.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: M09-0199 , 12th International Symposium on Flammability and Sensitivity on Materital in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres; Oct 07, 2009 - Oct 09, 2009; Berlin; Germany
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: As humans venture farther from Earth for longer durations, it will become essential for those on the journey to have significant control over the scheduling of their own activities as well as the activities of their companion systems and robots. However, the crew will not do all the scheduling; timelines will be the result of collaboration with ground personnel. Emerging technologies such as in-space message buses, delay-tolerant networks, and in-space internet will be the carriers on which the collaboration rides. Advances in scheduling technology, in the areas of task modeling, scheduling engines, and user interfaces will allow the crew to become virtual scheduling experts. New concepts of operations for producing the timeline will allow the crew and the ground support to collaborate while providing safeguards to ensure that the mission will be effectively accomplished without endangering the systems or personnel.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: 5th International Workshop on Planning and Scheduling for Space (IWPSS); Oct 22, 2006 - Oct 25, 2006; Baltimore, MD; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-CN-18589 , NASA Advisory Council Meeting; Jul 14, 2009 - Jul 15, 2009; Washington, DC; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Auto-Generated Semantic Processing (AGSP) Services is a suite of software tools for automated generation of other computer programs, denoted cross-platform semantic adapters, that support interoperability of computer-based communication systems that utilize a variety of both new and legacy communication software running in a variety of operating- system/computer-hardware combinations. AGSP has numerous potential uses in military, space-exploration, and other government applications as well as in commercial telecommunications. The cross-platform semantic adapters take advantage of common features of computer- based communication systems to enforce semantics, messaging protocols, and standards of processing of streams of binary data to ensure integrity of data and consistency of meaning among interoperating systems. The auto-generation aspect of AGSP Services reduces development time and effort by emphasizing specification and minimizing implementation: In effect, the design, building, and debugging of software for effecting conversions among complex communication protocols, custom device mappings, and unique data-manipulation algorithms is replaced with metadata specifications that map to an abstract platform-independent communications model. AGSP Services is modular and has been shown to be easily integrable into new and legacy NASA flight and ground communication systems.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: KSC-13072 , NASA Tech Briefs, May 2009; 15
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  • 9
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: This presentation in outline format for delivery to school age groups (i.e., K-12) reviews the importance of proper nutrition and exercise for everyone, with emphasis on space travel. It reviews the types of space food, the constraints of eating in space, and some of the challenges of exercising in space. It lists the materials displayed and used as teaching resources, as well as materials to be distributed.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Format: application/pdf
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