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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-01-20
    Description: Exercise has beneficial effects on human health, including protection against metabolic disorders such as diabetes. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects are incompletely understood. The lysosomal degradation pathway, autophagy, is an intracellular recycling system that functions during basal conditions in organelle and protein quality control. During stress, increased levels of autophagy permit cells to adapt to changing nutritional and energy demands through protein catabolism. Moreover, in animal models, autophagy protects against diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory diseases, ageing and insulin resistance. Here we show that acute exercise induces autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of fed mice. To investigate the role of exercise-mediated autophagy in vivo, we generated mutant mice that show normal levels of basal autophagy but are deficient in stimulus (exercise- or starvation)-induced autophagy. These mice (termed BCL2 AAA mice) contain knock-in mutations in BCL2 phosphorylation sites (Thr69Ala, Ser70Ala and Ser84Ala) that prevent stimulus-induced disruption of the BCL2-beclin-1 complex and autophagy activation. BCL2 AAA mice show decreased endurance and altered glucose metabolism during acute exercise, as well as impaired chronic exercise-mediated protection against high-fat-diet-induced glucose intolerance. Thus, exercise induces autophagy, BCL2 is a crucial regulator of exercise- (and starvation)-induced autophagy in vivo, and autophagy induction may contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518436/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518436/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉He, Congcong -- Bassik, Michael C -- Moresi, Viviana -- Sun, Kai -- Wei, Yongjie -- Zou, Zhongju -- An, Zhenyi -- Loh, Joy -- Fisher, Jill -- Sun, Qihua -- Korsmeyer, Stanley -- Packer, Milton -- May, Herman I -- Hill, Joseph A -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Gilpin, Christopher -- Xiao, Guanghua -- Bassel-Duby, Rhonda -- Scherer, Philipp E -- Levine, Beth -- 1P01 DK0887761/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK088761/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA142543/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109618/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA112023/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK055758/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R0I AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R0I HL080244/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R0I HL090842/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC1 DK086629/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RCI DK086629/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 18;481(7382):511-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10758.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Autophagy Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258505" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adiponectin/blood ; Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Autophagy/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Cells, Cultured ; Dietary Fats/adverse effects ; Food Deprivation/physiology ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Glucose/*metabolism ; Glucose Intolerance/chemically induced/prevention & control ; Glucose Tolerance Test ; *Homeostasis/drug effects ; Leptin/blood ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Muscle, Skeletal/cytology/drug effects/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Myocardium/cytology/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/genetics ; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*physiology ; Physical Endurance/genetics/physiology ; Physical Exertion/genetics/physiology ; Protein Binding/genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 ; Running/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-12-10
    Description: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a major global health threat, replicates in macrophages in part by inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion, until interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) activates the macrophage to traffic M. tuberculosis to the lysosome. How IFNgamma elicits this effect is unknown, but many studies suggest a role for macroautophagy (herein termed autophagy), a process by which cytoplasmic contents are targeted for lysosomal degradation. The involvement of autophagy has been defined based on studies in cultured cells where M. tuberculosis co-localizes with autophagy factors ATG5, ATG12, ATG16L1, p62, NDP52, BECN1 and LC3 (refs 2-6), stimulation of autophagy increases bacterial killing, and inhibition of autophagy increases bacterial survival. Notably, these studies reveal modest (~1.5-3-fold change) effects on M. tuberculosis replication. By contrast, mice lacking ATG5 in monocyte-derived cells and neutrophils (polymorponuclear cells, PMNs) succumb to M. tuberculosis within 30 days, an extremely severe phenotype similar to mice lacking IFNgamma signalling. Importantly, ATG5 is the only autophagy factor that has been studied during M. tuberculosis infection in vivo and autophagy-independent functions of ATG5 have been described. For this reason, we used a genetic approach to elucidate the role for multiple autophagy-related genes and the requirement for autophagy in resistance to M. tuberculosis infection in vivo. Here we show that, contrary to expectation, autophagic capacity does not correlate with the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. Instead, ATG5 plays a unique role in protection against M. tuberculosis by preventing PMN-mediated immunopathology. Furthermore, while Atg5 is dispensable in alveolar macrophages during M. tuberculosis infection, loss of Atg5 in PMNs can sensitize mice to M. tuberculosis. These findings shift our understanding of the role of ATG5 during M. tuberculosis infection, reveal new outcomes of ATG5 activity, and shed light on early events in innate immunity that are required to regulate disease pathology and bacterial replication.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kimmey, Jacqueline M -- Huynh, Jeremy P -- Weiss, Leslie A -- Park, Sunmin -- Kambal, Amal -- Debnath, Jayanta -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Stallings, Christina L -- GM007067/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Dec 24;528(7583):565-9. doi: 10.1038/nature16451. Epub 2015 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649827" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autophagy/genetics ; Dendritic Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Female ; Immunity, Innate/immunology ; Interferon-gamma/deficiency/immunology ; Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/*metabolism ; *Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology/physiology ; Neutrophils/*immunology/metabolism ; Tuberculosis/*immunology/microbiology/*pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez, Jennifer -- Cunha, Larissa D -- Park, Sunmin -- Yang, Mao -- Lu, Qun -- Orchard, Robert -- Li, Quan-Zhen -- Yan, Mei -- Janke, Laura -- Guy, Cliff -- Linkermann, Andreas -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Green, Douglas R -- 1ZIAES10328601/PHS HHS/ -- R01 AI040646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI40646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):115-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17950. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel 24105, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096368" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism ; Autoantibodies/blood ; *Autophagy/genetics ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/blood ; Inflammation/blood/genetics/*pathology ; Interleukin-10/biosynthesis ; Kidney/metabolism/pathology ; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood/genetics/*immunology/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Phagocytes/cytology/physiology ; Phagosomes/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-07-04
    Description: Preclinical studies of viral vector-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates have previously shown partial protection against neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector priming followed by purified envelope (Env) glycoprotein boosting. Rhesus monkeys primed with Ad26 vectors expressing SIVsmE543 Env, Gag, and Pol and boosted with AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H Env gp140 demonstrated complete protection in 50% of vaccinated animals against a series of repeated, heterologous, intrarectal SIVmac251 challenges that infected all controls. Protective efficacy correlated with the functionality of Env-specific antibody responses. Comparable protection was also observed with a similar Ad/Env vaccine against repeated, heterologous, intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 challenges. These data demonstrate robust protection by Ad/Env vaccines against acquisition of neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653134/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653134/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barouch, Dan H -- Alter, Galit -- Broge, Thomas -- Linde, Caitlyn -- Ackerman, Margaret E -- Brown, Eric P -- Borducchi, Erica N -- Smith, Kaitlin M -- Nkolola, Joseph P -- Liu, Jinyan -- Shields, Jennifer -- Parenteau, Lily -- Whitney, James B -- Abbink, Peter -- Ng'ang'a, David M -- Seaman, Michael S -- Lavine, Christy L -- Perry, James R -- Li, Wenjun -- Colantonio, Arnaud D -- Lewis, Mark G -- Chen, Bing -- Wenschuh, Holger -- Reimer, Ulf -- Piatak, Michael -- Lifson, Jeffrey D -- Handley, Scott A -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Koutsoukos, Marguerite -- Lorin, Clarisse -- Voss, Gerald -- Weijtens, Mo -- Pau, Maria G -- Schuitemaker, Hanneke -- AI060354/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI080289/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI084794/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI096040/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI102660/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI102691/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- OD011170/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI060354/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI080289/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084794/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI102660/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI102691/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 OD011170/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI080289/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI096040/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 17;349(6245):320-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3886. Epub 2015 Jul 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu. ; Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. ; Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA 01772, USA. ; Bioqual, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. ; Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; JPT Peptide Technologies GmbH, 12489 Berlin, Germany. ; AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick National Laboratory, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. ; Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; GSK Vaccines, 1330 Rixensart, Belgium. ; Janssen Infectious Diseases and Vaccines (formerly Crucell), 2301 Leiden, Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138104" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Adenovirus Vaccines/*immunology ; Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology ; Female ; Gene Products, env/*immunology ; Gene Products, gag/immunology ; Gene Products, pol/immunology ; Genetic Vectors/immunology ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics/immunology ; Immunization, Secondary ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; SAIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*prevention & control ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-29
    Description: The capacity of human norovirus (NoV), which causes 〉90% of global epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis, to infect a subset of people persistently may contribute to its spread. How such enteric viruses establish persistent infections is not well understood. We found that antibiotics prevented persistent murine norovirus (MNoV) infection, an effect that was reversed by replenishment of the bacterial microbiota. Antibiotics did not prevent tissue infection or affect systemic viral replication but acted specifically in the intestine. The receptor for the antiviral cytokine interferon-lambda, Ifnlr1, as well as the transcription factors Stat1 and Irf3, were required for antibiotics to prevent viral persistence. Thus, the bacterial microbiome fosters enteric viral persistence in a manner counteracted by specific components of the innate immune system.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409937/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409937/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baldridge, Megan T -- Nice, Timothy J -- McCune, Broc T -- Yokoyama, Christine C -- Kambal, Amal -- Wheadon, Michael -- Diamond, Michael S -- Ivanova, Yulia -- Artyomov, Maxim -- Virgin, Herbert W -- 1F31CA177194/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5T32AI007163/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5T32CA009547/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA177194/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007163/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009547/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI083019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI106772/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 16;347(6219):266-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1258025. Epub 2014 Nov 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. virgin@wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology ; Caliciviridae Infections/drug therapy/immunology/microbiology/*virology ; Cytokines/*physiology ; Female ; Gastroenteritis/drug therapy/immunology/microbiology/*virology ; Intestines/*microbiology/virology ; Male ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; *Microbiota/drug effects ; Norovirus/immunology/*physiology ; Receptors, Cytokine/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; *Symbiosis ; Viral Load ; Virus Replication ; Virus Shedding
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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