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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream. A comparison of the STR climatology with the Alexander and Mobley SST climatology showed that the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere, and colder poleward of 45 deg S.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 5; 9; p. 987-1001.
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: The accuracy of the global surface air temperature (SST) estimates for a particular month over the past decade is assessed using all of the in situ observations available today. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for the comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to determine their reproducibility. The data are further evaluated by comparing anomalies of near-global monthly mean surface temperatures with those of global satellite channel 2 microwave sounding unit temperatures for 144 months from 1979 to 1990. The results indicate that the inherent noise level in an SST observation is about 1.0 C, and this is compounded when the observation is made in regions of large temperature gradient.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 5; 12; p. 1405-1423.
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: The causes and physical mechanisms involved in the 1988 North American drought are investigated. The issue of when the drought circulation anomalies developed and their relation to changes in tropical Pacific SSTs is examined. The evolution of the Pacific SSTs and tropical convection, as revealed by outgoing LW radiation, is shown to be consistent with the development of the conditions favorable for initiating the drought circulation pattern in April through June of 1988. On the equator at 110 deg W, SST anomalies exceeded -2.75 C only in April, May, and June, and were largest (-4.1 C) in May 1988. Diagnostic calculations of atmospheric diabatic heating confirm that atmospheric heating anomalies existed in the tropical Pacific in association with the major SST anomalies during this time. It is argued that feedback-caused soil moisture anomalies were secondary sources for the drought circulation but could not have been the primary instigator.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 5; 159-172
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: The usefulness of global satellite sounding data for monitoring climate was assessed by comparing monthly mean brightness temperature anomalies derived from channel 2 of the microwave sounding units (MSUs) on board NOAA satellites over the past decade with both weighted and pressure-level ECMWF monthly mean temperatures for 96 months from 1982 to 1989. Results show that very good agreement exists between the MSU and the weighted ECMWF temperatures over the period considered, with grid-point correlations exceeding 0.85. Comparisons with individual pressure-level temperatures from ECMWF showed high correlations at 300 mb over most of the globe.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 5; 12; p. 1424-1440.
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