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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-10-13
    Description: Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) are ubiquitous ion channels responsible for cytosolic Ca(2+) signalling and essential for a broad array of cellular processes ranging from contraction to secretion, and from proliferation to cell death. Despite decades of research on InsP3Rs, a mechanistic understanding of their structure-function relationship is lacking. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, near-atomic (4.7 A) resolution electron cryomicroscopy structure of the tetrameric mammalian type 1 InsP3R channel in its apo-state. At this resolution, we are able to trace unambiguously approximately 85% of the protein backbone, allowing us to identify the structural elements involved in gating and modulation of this 1.3-megadalton channel. Although the central Ca(2+)-conduction pathway is similar to other ion channels, including the closely related ryanodine receptor, the cytosolic carboxy termini are uniquely arranged in a left-handed alpha-helical bundle, directly interacting with the amino-terminal domains of adjacent subunits. This configuration suggests a molecular mechanism for allosteric regulation of channel gating by intracellular signals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fan, Guizhen -- Baker, Matthew L -- Wang, Zhao -- Baker, Mariah R -- Sinyagovskiy, Pavel A -- Chiu, Wah -- Ludtke, Steven J -- Serysheva, Irina I -- P41 GM103832/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103832/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM072804/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079429/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM080139/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM072804/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM079429/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM080139/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R21 AR063255/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R21 GM100229/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R21AR063255/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R21GM100229/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 OD016279/OD/NIH HHS/ -- S10OD016279/OD/NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 19;527(7578):336-41. doi: 10.1038/nature15249. Epub 2015 Oct 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Structural Biology Imaging Center, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26458101" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation ; Animals ; Apoproteins/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Calcium/metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; *Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Cytosol/chemistry/metabolism ; Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors/chemistry/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Ion Channel Gating ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Rats ; Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A series of realistic simulation studies is being conducted as a cooperative effort between the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Meteorological Center (NMC), and the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) to provide a quantitative assessment of the potential impact of proposed observation systems on large scale numerical weather prediction. A special objective of this project is to avoid the unrealistic character of earlier simulation studies.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Res. Rev., 1983; p 1
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Turbulent entrainment at zero mean shear stratified interfaces has been studied extensively in the laboratory and theoretically for the classical situation in which density is a passive tracer of the mixing and the turbulent motions producing the entrainment are directed toward the interface. It is the purpose of the numerical simulations and data analysis to investigate these processes and, specifically, to focus on the following questions: (1) Can local cooling below cloudtop play an important role in setting up convective circulations within the cloud, and bringing about entrainment; (2) Can Cloudtop Entrainment Instability (CEI) alone lead to runaway entrainment under geophysically realistic conditions; and (3) What are the important mechanisms of entrainment at cloudtop under zero or low mean shear conditions.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1988; p 231-235
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The 1 and 20 Hz data are examined from the Electra flights made on July 5, 1987. The flight legs consisted of seven horizontal turbulent legs at the inversion, midcloud, and below clouds, plus 4 soundings made within the same period. The Rosemont temperature sensor and the top and bottom dewpoint sensors were used to measure temperature and humidity at 1 Hz. Inversion structure and entrainment; local dynamics and large scale forcing; convective elements; and decoupling of cloud and subcloud are discussed in relationship to the results of the Electra flight.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1989; p 107-111
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: From the sensitivity studies performed with the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system, it was revealed that the forecast errors in the tropics affect the ability to forecast midlatitude weather in some cases. Apparently, the forecast errors occurring in the tropics can propagate to midlatitudes. Therefore, the systematic error analysis of the GLA forecast system becomes a necessary step in improving the model's forecast performance. The major effort of this study is to examine the possible impact of the hydrological-cycle forecast error on dynamical fields in the GLA forecast system.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-101194 , NAS 1.15:101194
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Southern Hemisphere meteorological data for the months of August and September 1987 in the lower stratosphere are shown. National Meteorological Center (NMC) data, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data, and Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) data are used to display polar stereographic projections of 200 to 100 mb vertical mean temperatures, 100 mb zonal mean geopotential height perturbations, total ozone, Ertel's potential vorticity (Epv), and 50 to 30 mb vertical mean temperatures. In addition, latitude height cross sections at 65 W of potential temperature, Epv, geostrophic isotachs, and temperature are also shown. Finally, a longitude height cross section at 65 S of temperature and geostrophic wind vectors is also shown.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-4049 , REPT-88B0189 , NAS 1.15:4049
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: This document provides a summary of the research conducted in the Global Modeling and Simulation Branch and highlights the most significant accomplishments in 1986 to 1987. The Branch has been the focal point for global weather and climate prediction research in the Laboratory for Atmospheres through the retrieval and use of satellite data, the development of global models and data assimilation techniques, the simulation of future observing systems, and the performance of atmospheric diagnostic studies.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-4085 , REPT-88B0279 , NAS 1.15:4085
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-09-16
    Description: Experiments have been conducted to assess the summer and winter forecast impact of the FGGE system, and of its main observing components: temperature sounding data derived from the TIROS-N polar orbiting satellite, cloud track winds determined from geostationary satellite observations and drifting buoy data which were collected by satellite during FGGE. The Analysis/Forecast System used has a number of improvements upon the system utilized by Halen et al. (1982) for the FGGE Special Observing Period-1 (SOP-1). Several modifications were made in the analysis scheme, the most important being the interpolation of the analysis minus 6 h forecast deviations rather than of the analyzed fields themselves. The forecast model is still the 4 deg lat, 5 deg lon and 9 vertical levels GLAS Fourth Order GCM with several minor corrections implemented in the physics and numerics. The improved vertical interpolation in the analysis resulted in better assimilation of rawinsonde data, which has more vertical structure than satellite data. As a result, there was an improvement of the forecasts derived from conventional data only, and, consequently, a small reduction of the positive impact of satellite data from that obtained by Halem et al. (1982).
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Res. Program Review; p 44-53
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Numerical weather forecasts are characterized by rapidly declining skill in the first 48 to 72 h. Recent estimates of the sources of forecast error indicate that the inaccurate specification of the initial conditions contributes substantially to this error. The sensitivity of the forecast skill to the initial conditions is examined by comparing a set of real-data experiments whose initial data were obtained with two different analysis schemes. Results are presented to emphasize the importance of the objective analysis techniques used in the assimilation of observational data.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: 4th NASA Weather and Climate Program Sci. Rev.; p 133-137
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The augmented observational data base provided by FGGE offers a unique opportunity to improve the understanding and prediction of atmospheric planetary waves. Substantial progress was made, but a number of problems remain. The research on planetary waves conducted thus far with FGGE data is reviewed. Areas of progress are summarized, and some remaining problems are discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS-NRC Proceedings of the First National Workshop on the Global Weather Experiment, Vol. 2, Pt. 2; p 438-450
    Format: text
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