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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An essential component in global climate research is accurate cloud cover and type determination. Of the two approaches to texture-based classification (statistical and textural), only the former is effective in the classification of natural scenes such as land, ocean, and atmosphere. In the statistical approach that was adopted, parameters characterizing the stochastic properties of the spatial distribution of grey levels in an image are estimated and then used as features for cloud classification. Two types of textural measures were used. One is based on the distribution of the grey level difference vector (GLDV), and the other on a set of textural features derived from the MaxMin cooccurrence matrix (MMCM). The GLDV method looks at the difference D of grey levels at pixels separated by a horizontal distance d and computes several statistics based on this distribution. These are then used as features in subsequent classification. The MaxMin tectural features on the other hand are based on the MMCM, a matrix whose (I,J)th entry give the relative frequency of occurrences of the grey level pair (I,J) that are consecutive and thresholded local extremes separated by a given pixel distance d. Textural measures are then computed based on this matrix in much the same manner as is done in texture computation using the grey level cooccurrence matrix. The database consists of 37 cloud field scenes from LANDSAT imagery using a near IR visible channel. The classification algorithm used is the well known Stepwise Discriminant Analysis. The overall accuracy was estimated by the percentage or correct classifications in each case. It turns out that both types of classifiers, at their best combination of features, and at any given spatial resolution give approximately the same classification accuracy. A neural network based classifier with a feed forward architecture and a back propagation training algorithm is used to increase the classification accuracy, using these two classes of features. Preliminary results based on the GLDV textural features alone look promising.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Old Dominion Univ., NASA/American Society for Engineering Ed; Old Dominion Univ.,
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Stratocumulus cloud fields in the FIRE IFO region are analyzed using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery. Structural properties such as cloud cell size distribution, cell horizontal aspect ratio, fractional coverage and fractal dimension are determined. It is found that stratocumulus cloud number densities are represented by a power law. Cell horizontal aspect ratio has a tendency to increase at large cell sizes, and cells are bi-fractal in nature. Using LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner imagery for twelve selected stratocumulus scenes acquired during previous years, similar structural characteristics are obtained. Cloud field spatial organization also is analyzed. Nearest-neighbor spacings are fit with a number of functions, with Weibull and Gamma distributions providing the best fits. Poisson tests show that the spatial separations are not random. Second order statistics are used to examine clustering.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1988; p 277
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: It is shown that, using high-spatial-resolution data, very high cloud classification accuracies can be obtained with a neural network approach. A texture-based neural network classifier using only single-channel visible Landsat MSS imagery achieves an overall cloud identification accuracy of 93 percent. Cirrus can be distinguished from boundary layer cloudiness with an accuracy of 96 percent, without the use of an infrared channel. Stratocumulus is retrieved with an accuracy of 92 percent, cumulus at 90 percent. The use of the neural network does not improve cirrus classification accuracy. Rather, its main effect is in the improved separation between stratocumulus and cumulus cloudiness. While most cloud classification algorithms rely on linear parametric schemes, the present study is based on a nonlinear, nonparametric four-layer neural network approach. A three-layer neural network architecture, the nonparametric K-nearest neighbor approach, and the linear stepwise discriminant analysis procedure are compared. A significant finding is that significantly higher accuracies are attained with the nonparametric approaches using only 20 percent of the database as training data, compared to 67 percent of the database in the linear approach.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); 28; 846-855
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A semiautomated methodology is developed for estimating cumulus cloud base heights on the basis of high spatial resolution Landsat MSS data, using various image-processing techniques to match cloud edges with their corresponding shadow edges. The cloud base height is then estimated by computing the separation distance between the corresponding generalized Hough transform reference points. The differences between the cloud base heights computed by these means and a manual verification technique are of the order of 100 m or less; accuracies of 50-70 m may soon be possible via EOS instruments.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); 30; 3 Ma
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: This paper investigates the automated detection of jet contrails using data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. A preliminary algorithm subtracts the 11.8-micron image from the 10.8-micron image, creating a difference image on which contrails are enhanced. Then a three-stage algorithm searches the difference image for the nearly-straight line segments which characterize contrails. First, the algorithm searches for elevated, linear patterns called 'ridges'. Second, it applies a Hough transform to the detected ridges to locate nearly-straight lines. Third, the algorithm determines which of the nearly-straight lines are likely to be contrails. The paper applies this technique to several test scenes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 13; 8 Ma
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Using high-spatial-resolution Landsat MSS imagery, the cumulus cloud morphology, cloud nearest-neighbor distributions, and cloud clumping scales were investigated. It is shown that the cloud-size distribution can be represented by a mixture of two power laws; clouds of diameters less than 1 km have power-law slope range of 1.4-2.3, while larger clouds have slopes from 2.1 to 4.75. The break in power-law slope occurs at the cloud size that makes the largest contribution to cloud cover. Results suggest that larger clouds grow at the expense of smaller clouds. It was also found that the cloud inhomogeneities have significant impact on radiative fluxes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0894-8763); 29; 1245-126
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Stratocumulus, cumulus, and cirrus clouds were identified on the basis of cloud textural features which were derived from a single high-resolution Landsat MSS NIR channel using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis. It is shown that, using this method, it is possible to distinguish high cirrus clouds from low clouds with high accuracy on the basis of spatial brightness patterns. The largest probability of misclassification is associated with confusion between the stratocumulus breakup regions and the fair-weather cumulus.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 12663-12
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The study examines the textural signatures of clouds, ice-covered mountains, solid and broken sea ice and floes, and open water. The textural features are computed from sum and difference histogram and gray-level difference vector statistics defined at various pixel displacement distances derived from Landsat multispectral scanner data. Polar cloudiness, snow-covered mountainous regions, solid sea ice, glaciers, and open water have distinguishable texture features. This suggests that textural measures can be successfully applied to the detection of clouds over snow-covered mountains, an ability of considerable importance for the modeling of snow-melt runoff. However, broken stratocumulus cloud decks and thin cirrus over broken sea ice remain difficult to distinguish texturally. It is concluded that even with high spatial resolution imagery, it may not be possible to distinguish broken stratocumulus and thin clouds from sea ice in the marginal ice zone using the visible channel textural features alone.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Vancouver, Canada, July 10-14, 1989) IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); 520-528
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: This paper compares the results of cloud-field classification derived from two simplified vector approaches, the Sum and Difference Histogram (SADH) and the Gray Level Difference Vector (GLDV), with the results produced by the Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) approach described by Welch et al. (1988). It is shown that the SADH method produces accuracies equivalent to those obtained using the GLCM method, while the GLDV method fails to resolve error clusters. Compared to the GLCM method, the SADH method leads to a 31 percent saving in run time and a 50 percent saving in storage requirements, while the GLVD approach leads to a 40 percent saving in run time and an 87 percent saving in storage requirements.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 14749-14
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The study is based on AVHRR imagery and results from Landsat high-spatial-resolution scenes. Among the textual features investigated are the gray level difference vector (GLDV), and sum and difference histogram (SADH) approaches as well as gray level run length, spatial-coherence, and spectral-histogram measures. The traditional stepwise discriminant analysis and neural-network analysis are used for the identification of 20 Arctic surface and cloud classes. A principal-component analysis and hybrid architecture employing a modularized competitive learning layer are utilized. It is pointed out that the cloud-classification accuracy comparable to that of back-propagation could be achieved with a training time two orders of magnitude faster.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Long-term Monitoring of the Earth''s Radiation Budget; Apr. 17-18, 1990; Orlando, FL; United States
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