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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Raw data from the Solar Backscattered Ultrviolet/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus 7 operation are available on computer tape. These data are contained on two separate sets of RUTs (Raw Units Tapes) for SBUV and TOMS, labelled RUT-S and RUT-T respectively. The RUT-S and RUT-T tapes contain uncalibrated radiance and irradiance data, housekeeping data, wavelength and electronic calibration data, instrument field-of-view location and solar ephemeris information. These tapes also contain colocated cloud, terrain pressure and snow/ice thickness data, each derived from an independent source. The "RUT User's Guide" describes the SBUV and TOMS experiments, the instrument calibration and performance, operating schedules, and data coverage, and provides an assessment of RUT-S and -T data quality. It also provides detailed information on the data available on the computer tapes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-RP-1112 , NAS 1.61:1112 , REPT-910
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: A method is presented for inferring both the size distribution and the complex refractive index of atmospheric particulates from combined bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer observations. The basic input measurements are spectral optical depths at several visible and near-infrared wavelengths as obtained with a solar radiometer and backscatter and angular scatter coefficients as obtained from a biostatic-monostatic lidar. The spectral optical depth measurements obtained from the radiometer are mathematically inverted to infer a columnar particulate size distribution. Advantage is taken of the fact that the shape of the size distribution obtained by inverting the particulate optical depth is relatively insensitive to the particle refractive index assumed in the inversion. Bistatic-monostatic angular scatter and backscatter lidar data are then processed to extract an optimum value for the particle refractive index subject to the constraint that the shape of the particulate size distribution be the same as that inferred from the solar radiometer data. Specifically, the scattering parameters obtained from the bistatic-monostatic lidar data are compared with corresponding theoretical computations made for various assumed refractive index values. That value which yields best agreement, in a weighted least squares sense, is selected as the optimal refractive index estimate. The results of this procedure applied to a set of simulated measurements as well as to measurements collected on two separate days are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 85; Mar. 20
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A dark spiral feature is noted in the geosynchronous satellite visible image of the top of a thunderstorm which also has a Doppler radar-observed mesocyclone. Although the evidence is not conclusive, the feature may represent cyclonic rotation at cloud top associated with the pre-tornado mesocyclone.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Monthly Weather Review; 109; May 1981
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The results of numerical models or of new observational programs are checked by comparing them with past observations. In view of the differing analysis techniques or differing data samples, the eddy diffusivities presented here agree remarkably well with past estimates. However, in the application of K-values to two-dimensional models, the actual magnitude of the diffusivities is no more important than their spatial patterns, i.e., their gradients with height and latitude. It should thus be noted that the present patterns are often much different from those of past results.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Pure and Applied Geophysics; 118; 5, 19; 1980
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: The present and future use of satellites to locate offshore platforms and relay data from in situ sensors to shore was examined. A system of the ARGOS type will satisfy the increasing demand for oceanographic information through data relay and platform location. The improved ship navigation provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) will allow direct observation of currents from underway ships. Ocean systems are described and demand estimates on satellite systems are determined. The capabilities of the ARGOS system is assessed, including anticipated demand in the next decade.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85443 , NAS 1.15:85443
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Space time mapping of very high frequencies (VHF) sources reveals lightning processes for cloud to ground (CG) and for large intracloud (IC) flashes are confined to an altitude below about 10 km and closely associated with the central high reflectivity region of a storm. Another class of IC flashes was identified that produces a splattering of small sources within the main electrically active volume of a storm and also within a large divergent wind canopy at the top of a storm. There is no apparent temporal association between the small high altitude IC flashes occurring almost continuously and the large IC and CG flashes sporadically occurring in the lower portions of storms.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: FAA Eighth Intern. Aerospace and Ground Conf. on Lightning and Static Elec.; 9 p
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method for interpreting direct strike and nearby strike lightning data on aircraft is discussed. The theoretical basis for the interpretation involves a transmission line model for the aircraft, and is discussed. Results of applying this model to the F-106 aircraft are presented and in the natural resonances are computed for several different electrical representations of the aircraft. The signal processing techniques useful for extracting pole (resonance) information from experimental data are discussed, and the use of these techniques on the measured lightning data is illustrated. Finally, the results of a related ground-based lightning experiment are discussed and data are presented. The purpose of this test was to gain additional understanding of the resonance properties of the F-106 aircraft.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:172127 , NASA-CR-172127
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A climatology of ozone for altitudes from FL190 to FL590 (19,000 to 59,000 ft) is presented. Climatological tables are given in two appendixes: one with d deg latitude resolution on a monthly basis, and one with 10 deg latitude resolution on a seasonal basis. Data were taken from 11,472 balloon-borne ozonesondes launched at 60 stations from 1963 to 1980 and from over 160,000 observations made by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program on 4417 commercial airliner flights from 1975 to 1979. Case study and statistical comparisons of results from these two data sets showed that they are compatible and can be combined. Several examples of analyses that can be made by using the tabulated data are given and discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.60:2303 , E-1626 , NASA-TP-2303
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle-concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud-encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long-range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminaar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the narrative, analysis, and conclusions. Volume II contains five supporting appendixes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85835-VOL-2 , NAS 1.15:85835-VOL-2 , L-15789-VOL-2
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archieve from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: L-15789-VOL-1 , NASA-TM-85835-VOL-1 , NAS 1.15:85835-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
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