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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (34)
  • MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT  (24)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We examined the contribution of two important depth cues, occlusion and disparity, on the performance of a simulated telerobotic task. We have simulated a three-axis tracking task that is viewed under four different levels of realism. We hoped to determine if the combined presentation of the depth cues has a more beneficial effect on performance than either depth cue presented singularly. Results showed similar performance improvements with the presentation of occlusion or disparity individually. When both cues were present together, a somewhat larger performance improvement was measured.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: In: Human vision, visual processing, and digital display III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Feb. 10-13, 1992 (A93-33438 12-63); p. 541-547.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experimental telerobotics (TR) simulation is described suitable for studying human operator (HO) performance. Simple manipulator pick-and-place and tracking tasks allowed quantitative comparison of a number of calligraphic display viewing conditions. A number of control modes could be compared in this TR simulation, including displacement, rate, and acceleratory control using position and force joysticks. A homeomorphic controller turned out to be no better than joysticks; the adaptive properties of the HO can apparently permit quite good control over a variety of controller configurations and control modes. Training by optimal control example seemed helpful in preliminary experiments.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Proceedings of 1987 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Robotics; 30 p
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A Helmet Mounted Display system has been developed. It provides the capability to display stereo images with the viewpoint tied to subjects' head orientation. The type of display might be useful in a telerobotic environment provided the correct operating parameters are known. The effects of update frequency were tested using a 3D tracking task. The effects of blur were tested using both tracking and pick-and-place tasks. For both, researchers found that operator performance can be degraded if the correct parameters are not used. Researchers are also using the display to explore the use of head movements as part of gaze as subjects search their visual field for target objects.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Third Annual Workshop on Space Operations Automation and Robotics (SOAR 1989); p 477-481
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A top-down image processing scheme is described. A three-dimensional model of a robotic working environment, with robot manipulators, workpieces, cameras, and on-the-scene visual enhancements is employed to control and direct the image processing, so that rapid, robust algorithms act in an efficient manner to continually update the model. Only the model parameters are communicated, so that savings in bandwidth are achieved. This image compression by modeling is especially important for control of space telerobotics. The background for this scheme lies in an hypothesis of human vision put forward by the senior author and colleagues almost 20 years ago - the Scanpath Theory. Evidence was obtained that repetitive sequences of saccadic eye movements, the scanpath, acted as the checking phase of visual pattern recognition. Further evidence was obtained that the scanpaths were apparently generated by a cognitive model and not directly by the visual image. This top-down theory of human vision was generalized in some sense to the frame in artificial intelligence. Another source of the concept arose from bioengineering instrumentation for measuring the pupil and eye movements with infrared video cameras and special-purpose hardware.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, Vision Science and Technology at NASA: Results of a Workshop; p 49
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Human operators confronted with misaligned display and control frames of reference performed three dimensional, pursuit tracking in virtual environment and virtual space simulations. Analysis of the components of the tracking errors in the perspective displays presenting virtual space showed that components of the error due to visual motor misalignment may be linearly separated from those associated with the mismatch between display and control coordinate systems. Tracking performance improved with several hours practice despite previous reports that such improvement did not take place.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: NASA. Johnson Space Center, 5th Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1991), Volume 2; p 569-574
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The 3-D model control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The 3-D model control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: JPL, California Inst. of Tech., Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, Volume 3; p 213-222
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A teleoperation simulator was constructed with vector display system, joysticks, and a simulated cylindrical manipulator, in order to quantitatively evaluate various display conditions. The first of two experiments conducted investigated the effects of perspective parameter variations on human operators' pick-and-place performance, using a monoscopic perspective display. The second experiment involved visual enhancements of the monoscopic perspective display, by adding a grid and reference lines, by comparison with visual enhancements of a stereoscopic display; results indicate that stereoscopy generally permits superior pick-and-place performance, but that monoscopy nevertheless allows equivalent performance when defined with appropriate perspective parameter values and adequate visual enhancements.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments; 25 p
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  • 8
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2014-09-16
    Description: Blink rate is reported to vary dependent upon ongoing task performance, perceptual, attentional and cognitive factors, and fatigue. Five levels of task difficulty were operationally defined and task performance as lines read aloud per minute were measured. A single noninvasive infrared TV eyetracker was modified to measure blinking and an on-line computer program identified and counted blinks while the subject performed the tasks. Blink rate decreased by 50% when either task performance increased (fast reading) or visual difficulty increased (blurred text); blink rate increased greatly during rest breaks. There was no change in blink rate during one hour experiments even though subjects complained of severe fatigue.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center 20th Ann. Conf. on Manual Control, Vol. 2; p 337-348
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Voluntary active head rotations produced vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movements (VOR) with the subject viewing a fixation target. When this target jumped, the size of the refixation saccades were a function of the ongoing initial velocity of the eye. Saccades made against the VOR were larger in magnitude. Simulation of a reciprocally innervated model eye movement provided results comparable to the experimental data. Most of the experimental effect appeared to be due to linear summation for saccades of 5 and 10 degree magnitude. For small saccades of 2.5 degrees, peripheral nonlinear interaction of state variables in the neuromuscular plant also played a role as proven by comparable behavior in the simulated model with known controller signals.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: JPL Proc. of the 17th Ann. Conf. on Manual Control; p 537-548
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Original results for a newly developed eight-order nonlinear limb antagonistic muscle model of elbow flexion and extension are presented. A wider variety of sensitivity analysis techniques are used and a systematic protocol is established that shows how the different methods can be used efficiently to complement one another for maximum insight into model sensitivity. It is explicitly shown how the sensitivity of output behaviors to model parameters is a function of the controller input sequence, i.e., of the movement task. When the task is changed (for instance, from an input sequence that results in the usual fast movement task to a slower movement that may also involve external loading, etc.) the set of parameters with high sensitivity will in general also change. Such task-specific use of sensitivity analysis techniques identifies the set of parameters most important for a given task, and even suggests task-specific model reduction possibilities.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center 20th Ann. Conf. on Manual Control, Vol. 1; p 671-698
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